Flashcards in Exam 4: Dr. Thomason Transfusions and Blood Groups Deck (37):
What are transfusions?
Process of receiving blood products into one's circulation
What are the different types of blood products?
Fresh whole blood
Fresh frozen plasma
What are indications for transfusions?
Disorders of hemostasis/coagulation
Deficiencies of plasma components
What are the different anemias?
What are blood groups?
Inherited antigens on the RBC surface
What do RBC antigens do?
Contribute to self recognition
Elicit the production of antibodies when introduced to an animal whose RBCs lack that antigen
What are the canine blood types?
Dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 1.1, 1.2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8
Which DEAs are considered to be important in transfusion medicine?
1.1 and 1.2
Describe DEA 1.1
The antigen routinely determined in patients and donors
What percentage of dogs are DEA 1.1 positive?
What are red cell alloantibodies?
IgM, IgG, or IgE antibodies that cause hypersensitivity reactions to blood products
Do dogs have naturally occurring alloantibodies to DEA 1.1?
What will happen when a transfusion uses RBCs with similar DEA antigens?
Less likely to mount an immune response due to similar cells
May recognize another antigen
What will happen when a transfusion uses RBCs with different DEA antigens?
The highly antigenic DEA 1.1 antigen is not expressed
Less likely to mount an immune response
What will happen when a transfusion uses DEA 1.1 negative dogs transfuse with DEA 1.1 positive blood?
It will likely become sensitized and produce an anti-DEA 1.1 alloantibody
What are previously transfused patients with circulating alloantibodies are risk for?
Development of the transfusion reactions
What can be used to assess blood compatibility?
RBC antigens and plasma antibody interaction
What is the visible reaction of blood compatibility?
What is agglutination?
The antibody mediated clumping of cells that express antigen on their surface
What does major crossmatch determine?
The compatibility between the donor and recipient
What does major crossmatch prevent?
Incompatible transfusions that could result in immune-mediated hemolytic transfusion reactions
What are donor RBCs incubated with in major crossmatch?
Recipient serum and observed for agglutination/hemolysis
If there is agglutination/hemolysis in major crossmatch, what does it mean?
What are the feline blood types?
What is the predominant blood type of felines?
What breeds of cats have the highest frequency of type B blood?
What do cats have in regards to alloantibodies?
Naturally occurring alloantibodies
What do type A cats have?
What do type B cats have?
What happens when antibodies and antigens bind?
When do acute hemolytic transfusion reactions (AHTRs) develop?
When transfused RBCs interact with preformed circulating antibodies in the recipient that are naturally occurring or acquired
What can the interaction between transfused RBCs and circulating antibodies do?
Activate complement and cytokines which leads to a systemic inflammatory response
What is the reaction severity of AHTRs related to?
The number of RBCs destroyed
In dogs, what are AHTRs predominantly?
In cats, what are AHTRs predominantly?
What are clinical sign of AHTRs?