Exam 4: Dr. Thomason Transfusions and Blood Groups Flashcards Preview

Immunology - DVM year 1 > Exam 4: Dr. Thomason Transfusions and Blood Groups > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 4: Dr. Thomason Transfusions and Blood Groups Deck (37):
1

What are transfusions?

Process of receiving blood products into one's circulation

2

What are the different types of blood products?

Fresh whole blood
Packed RBCs
Fresh frozen plasma
Platelet concentrations

3

What are indications for transfusions?

Anemia
Disorders of hemostasis/coagulation
Deficiencies of plasma components

4

What are the different anemias?

Hemorrhage
Hemolysis
Non-regenerative anemia

5

What are blood groups?

Inherited antigens on the RBC surface

6

What do RBC antigens do?

Contribute to self recognition
Elicit the production of antibodies when introduced to an animal whose RBCs lack that antigen

7

What are the canine blood types?

Dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 1.1, 1.2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8

8

Which DEAs are considered to be important in transfusion medicine?

1.1 and 1.2

9

Describe DEA 1.1

Extremely antigenic
The antigen routinely determined in patients and donors

10

What percentage of dogs are DEA 1.1 positive?

42%

11

What are red cell alloantibodies?

IgM, IgG, or IgE antibodies that cause hypersensitivity reactions to blood products

12

Do dogs have naturally occurring alloantibodies to DEA 1.1?

No

13

What will happen when a transfusion uses RBCs with similar DEA antigens?

Less likely to mount an immune response due to similar cells
May recognize another antigen

14

What will happen when a transfusion uses RBCs with different DEA antigens?

The highly antigenic DEA 1.1 antigen is not expressed
Less likely to mount an immune response

15

What will happen when a transfusion uses DEA 1.1 negative dogs transfuse with DEA 1.1 positive blood?

It will likely become sensitized and produce an anti-DEA 1.1 alloantibody

16

What are previously transfused patients with circulating alloantibodies are risk for?

Development of the transfusion reactions

17

What can be used to assess blood compatibility?

RBC antigens and plasma antibody interaction

18

What is the visible reaction of blood compatibility?

Agglutination

19

What is agglutination?

The antibody mediated clumping of cells that express antigen on their surface

20

What does major crossmatch determine?

The compatibility between the donor and recipient

21

What does major crossmatch prevent?

Incompatible transfusions that could result in immune-mediated hemolytic transfusion reactions

22

What are donor RBCs incubated with in major crossmatch?

Recipient serum and observed for agglutination/hemolysis

23

If there is agglutination/hemolysis in major crossmatch, what does it mean?

Incompatible

24

What are the feline blood types?

Type A
Type B
Type AB

25

What is the predominant blood type of felines?

Type A

26

What breeds of cats have the highest frequency of type B blood?

Devon Rex
British Shorthair

27

What do cats have in regards to alloantibodies?

Naturally occurring alloantibodies

28

What do type A cats have?

Circulating B-antibodies

29

What do type B cats have?

Circulating A-antibodies

30

What happens when antibodies and antigens bind?

Agglutination

31

When do acute hemolytic transfusion reactions (AHTRs) develop?

When transfused RBCs interact with preformed circulating antibodies in the recipient that are naturally occurring or acquired

32

What can the interaction between transfused RBCs and circulating antibodies do?

Activate complement and cytokines which leads to a systemic inflammatory response

33

What is the reaction severity of AHTRs related to?

The number of RBCs destroyed

34

In dogs, what are AHTRs predominantly?

IgG

35

In cats, what are AHTRs predominantly?

IgM

36

What are clinical sign of AHTRs?

Fever
Restlessness
Salivation
Incontinence
Shock

37

Describe febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reactions

A temperature increase associated with a transfusion without any other explanation
Leukocyte-derived cytokine and/or circulating anti-leukocyte antibodies in the recipient