Exam 4 Terms Flashcards Preview

H. O. E. > Exam 4 Terms > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 4 Terms Deck (202):
0

Abdominal cavity

begins at inferior surface of diaphragm
-houses stomach, liver, spleen, colon

1

Abduction

away from body

2

Adduction

Toward body

3

Adipose tissue

Fats

4

Afferent nerves

sensory nerves (afferent = carrying into something)
---carry impulses into brain and spinal cord

5

Ampiarthrosis

Slightly movable joint

6

Amount f blood in human

8-12 pints

7

Anatomic posistion

Standing feet apart, arms and hands spread

8

Anatomy

Anatomy is the science that studies the structure of the body

9

Anterior

Near the front

10

Aorta artery

main trunk of the systemic arteries, carrying blood from the left side of the heart to the arteries of all limbs and organs

Largest

11

Aortic valve

1 of 4 that regulate blood flow

12

Apnea

Suspension of xternal breathing

13

Arachnoid membrane


The arachnoid mater is one of the three meninges, the protective membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord

14

Arteries

Ood vessels
Carry blood away from heart

15

Arterioles

Smaller vessels, carry blood to capillaries

16

Axon

also known as a nerve fibre; is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses away

17

Basophils

Type of white blood cell
Produces histamine and heparin

18

Biceps brachii

UpPer arm between shoulder nd elbow

19

Bicuspid valve

Left atrioventricular valve in heart

20

Bradycardia

Pulse rate under 60/minute

21

Buccal cavity

Mouth cavity

22

Capillaries

Tiny blood vessel that connects arterioles and venules and allows exchange of nutrients

23

Cardiac muscle

Heart muscle

24

Cardiac sphincter

Valve between distal end of esophagus and stomach

25

Carotid artery

Supply blood to brain

26

Cataract

Cloudines of eyes

27

Cellular respiration

process by which the chemical energy of "food" molecules is released and partially captured in the form of ATP

28

Centrosome

Area of cell cytoplasm that contains two centrioles

Important for reproduction

29

Cerebellum

Section of brain that is dorsal to the pons and medulla oblongata

Maintains balance

30

Cerebrum

Largest section of brain

Sensory perception and voluntary movements

31

Cervix of uterus

Entrance

32

Chromatin

Contains chromosomes for genes

33

Cilia

Tiny hair like projection

34

Ciliary body

the part of the eye that connects the iris to the choroid

35

Circulatory system

Cardiovascular

Heart, veins, blood, arteries

36

Circumdiction

Moving a joint in a circle

37

Cirrhosis

Scarring of the liver

38

Clotting proteins

Proteins in blood plasma

39

Cochlea

Snail shaped section of inner ear

Contains the Corti for hearing

40

Conjuctiva

Mucous membrane that lines eyelids and covers anterior part of sclera of the eye

41

Connective tissue

Connects, supports, and binds body organs

42

Contractility

Tightening and shortening of muscles

43

Contracture

Tightening and shortening of muscles

44

Cornea

Transparent section of sclera

Allows light rays to enter eye

45

Coronal plane

Frontal plane

Divides front and back

46

Coronary artery

Supply muscular tissue to the heart

47

Cranial cavity

Houses brain

48

Deltoid

Shoulder muscle

49

Dendrite

Branched projections of neurons

50

Diaphysis

Shaft of a long bone

51

Diarthrosis

Synovial joints
Free moving joints

52

Diastolic

Period of time where heart refills with blood

Moment of rest

53

Diencephalon

Section of brain between cerebrum and midbrain

Contains thalamus and hypothalamus

54

Digestive system

Stomach, intestines, mouth

55

Distal

Farthest from the trunk

56

Dorsal

Pertaining to the back

57

Dorsal cavity

Posterior

Spinal cavity

58

Dura mater

Surrounds the spinal cord

Outermost of three meninges

59

Dyspnea

Labored breathing

60

Efferent nerves

motor nerves (efferent = carrying away from something)
---carry impulses away from and make movement

61

Ejaculatory ducts

Duct or tube from seminal vesicle to urethra

62

Elasticity

Muscle returns to original shape

63

Embolus

Blood clot

64

Endocrine system

Secrete hormones

Ductless glands

65

Endoplasmic reticulum

Tubular structures in cytoplasm

Allow for transport of materials in and out of nucleus

66

Endosteum

Membrane lining the medullary canal of a bone

67

Eosinophil

White blood cells

68

Epidydmis

Tightly coiled tube in scrotal sac

Connects testes to vas deferens

69

Epithelial tissue

Forms skin and parts of secreting glands

70

Erythrocytes

Red blood cells

71

Excitability

Muscle responds to stimulus

72

Extensibility

Muscle can be stretched

73

Extension

Increasing the angle between two parts

Straightening

74

External respirations

Exchange of o for co2

75

Blood pressure factos

Stress
Obesity
Genetics
Smoking

76

False ribs

Floating

11,12

77

Fontanels

Area between cranial bones where the bones have not yet fused

78

Frontal plane

Coronal

Front part of body

79

Bile function

Aids in digestion of lipids

80

Thrombocytes function

Required for clotting of blood

81

Fundus of uterus

The fundus is the rounded portion of the uterus that is directed upward. It projects above the entrance of the uterine tubes, forming the roof of the uerine cavity

82

Gastrocnemius

Calf muscle

83

Fascia

Fibrous membrane covering, supporting, and separating muscles

84

Gluteus maximas

Ass muscle

85

Golgi apparatus

In cytoplasm

Stores, produces, and packages secretions for dishcharge of cell

86

Hard palate

Bony

Forms roof of mouth

87

Hemiplegia

Paralysis on one side of body

88

Hemoglobin

Iron containing protein in red blood cells

Carries oxygen

89

Inferior

Below or under

90

Insertion

End of area of a muscle that oves when muscle contracts

91

Integumentary system

Skin system

92

Internal respirations

The metabolic processes whereby certain organisms obtain energy from organic moelcules; processes that take place in the cells and tissues during which energy is released and carbon dioxide is produced and absorbed by the blood to be transported to the lungs.Respiration that occurs within cells of an organism.

93

Involuntary muscles

Lungs, heart, digestion

94

Iris

Colored part of eye

95

Joints

Articulation

Where two bones meet

96

Lateral

Pertaining to the side

97

Latissimus dorsi

Back muscle

98

Left atrium

Receding chamber

Left and right

99

Left ventricle

Pumping chamber

Left and right

100

Lens

Crystalline structure suspended behind pupil

Refracts and bends light onto retina

Magnifying glass

101

Leukocytes

White blood cell

102

Ligament

Fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone

103

Lining of the uterus

Endometrium

104

Lymphatic system

Removes waste and liquids

Lymph, spleen, thymus

105

Lymphocytes

White blood cell

Found in bone marrow

106

Lysosome

In cytoplasm that contain enzymes to digest and destroy old cells, bacteria, matters

107

Medial

Pertaining to the middle

108

Medulla onblongata

Lower part of brainstem

Controls vital processes like respiration and heart beat

109

Meninges

Membranes the cover brain and spinal cord

110

Medullary canal

Central cavity of bone shafts
Red and yellow marrow here

111

Midbrain

Portion of brain that connects pons and cerebellum

Relay center for impulses

112

Midsaggital plane

Left and right side of body

113

Mitochondria

Power houses

Provide energy and metabolism

114

Mitral valve

Flap or cusp between right atrium and left ventricle

115

Muscle tissue

Fibers that produce movement

116

Muscle tone

State or partial muscle contraction showing readiness

117

Myelin

Insulating layer surrounding nerves

118

Neurilemma

thin membrane spirally enwrapping the myelin layers of certain fibers, especially of the peripheral nerves, or the axons of some unmyelinated nerve fibers.

119

Neuron

Nerve cell

120

Neutrophils

Most abundant type of white blood cell

121

Nucleolus

Inside nucleus of cell

Important for reproduction

122

Olfactory receptors

Allow for a sense of smell

123

Orbital cavity

Eyes

124

Order of large instestine

Absorption of water
Storage of indigestibles
Transport waste products

125

Organ of corti

sensitive element in the inner ear and can be thought of as the body's microphone. It is situated on the basilar membrane in one of the three compartments of the Cochlea

126

Organelle

Structures within the cytoplasm

127

Origin

End of area of a muscle that remains stationary in movement

128

Ovaries

Endocrine gland or gonad in female

Produces ovum

129

Pancreas

Gland behind stomach

Secrets insulin

130

Paraplegia

Lower half of body paralysis

131

Parasympathetic system

The part of the autonomic nervous system originating in the brain stem and the lower part of the spinal cord that, in general, inhibits or opposes the physiological effects of the sympathetic nervous system, as in tending to stimulate digestive secretions, slow the heart, constrict the pupils, and dilate blood vessels.

132

Pathophysiology

Study of how disease occurs

Responses of living organisms to that disease

133

Pectoralis major

Chest muscle

134

Pelvic cavity

hips bones, and all of which helps connect legs
-reproductive organs, colon, bladder

135

Perineum

Region between vagina and anus in female

Scrotum and anus in male

136

Peripheral pulse sites

Nevk, wrist, knee, elbow

137

Pharyngeal tonsils

is a mass of lymphatic tissue situated posterior to the nasal cavity, in the roof of the nasopharynx, where the nose blends into the throat

138

Phlebitis

Vein inflammation

139

Physiology

Study of living organisms

140

Pia mater

Innermost layer of meninges

141

Pinocytic vesicle

mechanism by which cells ingest extracellular fluid and its contents; it involves the formation of invaginations by the cell membrane, which close and break off to form fluid-filled vacuoles in the cytoplasm.pinocytot´ic

142

Platelets

Blood cell required for blood clotting

143

Pleura

Serous membrane that covers lungs and lines thoracic cavity

144

Pons

Portion of brainstem that connects the medulla onblongata and cerebellum to the upper portions of brain

145

Posterior

Toward back, behind

146

Proximal

Closest to point of attachment

147

Pulmonary valve

Flap or cusp between right ventricle and pulmonary artery

148

Pupil

Hole in center of iris

Allows to see light

149

Quadriceps femoris

Thigh muscle

150

Quadriplegic

All four limb paralysis

151

Rectus abdominus

Abs

152

Red marrow

Soft tissue in the epiphyses of long boens

153

Respiratory system

-lungs and air passages
-takes oxygen in and removes carbon dioxide
-works continuously or death occurs in 10-12 minutes, brain damage in 4-6 minutes
-nose
-sinuses
-pharynx
-larynx
-trachea
-bronchi
-alveoli
-lungsg

154

Retina

Sensory membrane that lines eye and is immediate instrument of vision

155

Right atrium

Receding chamber

Left and right

156

Right ventricle

Left and right

Pumping chamber

157

Hypertension

Same as hbp

158

Rotation

Movement around a central axis

159

Rugae

Wrinkles in lining of the stomach

160

Salivary amylase

First enzyme food encounters

161

Salivary glands

Produce saliva

162

Sartorius

Longest muscle

Runs down inside of thigh

163

Sclera

Whites of the eye

164

Scrotum

The scrotum is a part of a male's body located behind the penis. The scrotum is the sac (pouch) that contains the testes, blood vessels, and part of the spermatic cord.

165

Semicircular canal

Structure of inner ear that involves maintaining balance

166

Seminal vesicles

Two saclike structures behind bladder

Connected to vas deferens

Secrets semen

167

Sinuses

Hollowed cavities in nasal cavitity

168

Skeletal muscle

Striated muscle attached to bones

169

Skeletal system

Bones

170

Smooth muscle

Involuntary

Peristalsis

171

Somatic system

Carries sensory and motor information to central nervous system

172

Spinal cavity

Houses spinal cord

173

Sternocleidomastoid

long muscle in the side of the neck that extends up from the thorax to the base of the skull behind the ear

174

Fallopian tubes structure

Hollow, tubular structures, bilateral, 8-12 cm long and 0.5-1.2 cm in diameter, lined by a single layer of mucosal epithelium with many folds (plica)
Extends from posterior superior uterine fundus laterally and leads to ovaries

175

Superior

Above, on top of

176

Sympathetic system

Regulates functions of internal organs

Part of cns

177

Synarthrosis

Little joint movement

178

Systolic

Blood pressure in heart when heart is pumping

179

Tachycardia

Fast or rapid heartbeat

180

Tendon

Fibrous muscle tissue that connects muscle to bones

181

Thoracic cavity

houses heart, lungs, and great vessels
-protected by ribs, sternum, clavicle, and scapula

182

Thoracic vertebrae

12
Where the chest is
Protects spinal cord

183

Thrombocytes

Platelets
Clot blood

184

Thrombophlephitis

Swelling of vein because of a blood clot

185

Tibialis anterior

Dorsal flexor of foot

Connects ankle to foot to shin

186

Transverse plane

Top and bottom half of body

187

Trapezius

Muscle
Back of neck and shoulders

188

Triceps brachii

Tricep muscle in arm

189

True ribs

---attach directly to sternum by costal-cartilages
---first 7 pairs

190

Urinary system

-excretory system
-removes waste products and excess water
-maintains homeostasis
-maintains acid-based balances (pH)
-2 kidneys, 2 ureters, bladder, urethra

191

Varicose veins

Swollen veins

192

Vas deferens

Tube that carries sperm and semen from epididymis to ejaculatory duct

193

Veins

Blood vessel carries blood to heart

194

Ventral

Pertaining to front

Anterior

195

Ventral cavity

Thoracic, abdominal, pelvic

196

Ventricles

Two lower chambers in heart

Cavity in brain

197

Venules

Smallest type of vein

Connects capillaries to veins

198

Vestibule

Space at beginning of a canal

199

Villi

Tiny projections

Small intestine has them to absorb nutrients

200

Voluntary muscles

All movement

201

Yellow marrow

Soft tissues in shafts of long bones