Exam #4: Viral Infections of the Resp. Tract Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam #4: Viral Infections of the Resp. Tract Deck (44):

What are the symptoms of the common cold? What symptoms differentiate a cold from a more serious infection?

- Rhinitis (inflammation of the nasal passages)
- Pharyngitis (sore throat)
- Mild cough

Lack of:
- High fever
- Lower respiratory tract involvement
- Dyspnea


What are considered severe respiratory tract infections?



What complications can be associated with the common cold?

- OM
- Sinus Infections
- Exacerbations of asthma (seen in Rhinovirus C in school age children) & COPD in adults


What viruses are associated with the common cold?

- Rhinovirus*
- Non-SARS Coronavirus
- Adenovirus
- Coxsackievirus
- Influenza B & C vs. A
- Respiratory Syncytical Virus
- Parainfluenza


List the characteristics of the Rhinovirus?

- Picornavirus family member
- Non-enveloped (stable in environment)
- +ssRNA
- Binds ICAM-1 receptor


What are the three types of Rhinovirus?

A, B, & C species

Note also that there are over 100 serotypes; thus, the immune system does generate a memory response, but there the response is serotype specific


How are Rhinoviruses transmitted?

- Shed in respiratory secretions
- Transmission though direct contact with nasal secretions, large droplets, & contaminated fomites
- Extremely low incolum needed for infection
- Incubation period is 1-3 days


Describe the Rhinovirus mechanism of action.

1) Virus attaches to cilia in the respiratory tract via ICAM-1
2) Absorption
3) Replication
4) Replication causes tissue damage & disruption of the epithelial layer= clear fluid out-pouring from the lamina propria
5) Host defenses activated from viral out-poruing & immune system begins to combat the virus
6) Antibody production leads to recovery & epithelium regenerates


How is the Rhinovirus treated?

- Antihistamines
- Oral Decongestants

Symptomatic treatment only; NO antibiotics


Characteristics of the Non-SARS coronavirus.

- Coronavirus (named by "corona" appearance under EM"
- Enveloped
- +ssRNA genome


Describe the mechanism of action of the Coronavirus. How is Non-SARS different from SARS?

- Replicate in epithelial cells of respiratory tract
- Optimal temp. for replication is 33-35 degrees C i.e. the cooler upper respiratory tract (vs. SARS that replicate better at body temperature)


How is the coronavirus transmitted?

Large droplets

*Infection more common in infants & children


What is the difference between the long term immune response to coronavirus & rhinovirus?

- Rhinovirus= long term immune response to species
- Coronavirus= no memory response & reinfection to coronavirus can occur despite circulating antibodies


List the characteristics of the Adenovirus.

- Adenovirus
- Non-enveloped
- dsDNA
- Contains adenoviral fiber proteins that are used for attachment & are toxic to cells

Only DNA virus that causes the common cold


Which serotypes of Adenovirus most commonly cause infection of the respiratory tract?

1, 2, & 5

vs. 40 & 41 that more frequently cause gastroenteritis


How is the adenovirus transmitted?

Oral droplets, inhalation, & conjunctiva


How does the pathology of adenovirus differ from rhino & corona?

- May enter lymphoid tissues following acute infection
- Individuals can shed the virus for up to 18 months following infection (asymptomatic)
- No seasonal pattern of disease i.e. patient with cold in the summer is more likely to have adenovirus than Rhinovirus or Coronavirus


What are the other illness associated with Adenoviruses?

- Pharyngoconjunctival fever
- Croup, bronchiolitis, & pneumonia
- GI disease


Which Adenovirus serotypes are associated with GI disease?

40 & 41


To which of the viruses that cause the common cold is a vaccine avaliable?

Adenovirus 4 & 7 (live oral vaccine, given to military recruits)


List the characteristics of the Coxsackievirus.

- Enterovirus, a subfamily of picornovirus (like Rhinovirus) that can pass through the GI tract and remain infectious
- Nonenveloped
- +ssRNA
- survive low pH of GI tract
- Replication is fast & occurs in the cytoplasm


What is the mode of transmission of the Coxsackivirus?

Fecal to oral transmission


What can the Coxsackieirus cause in addition to the common cold?

- Herpangina
- Meningitis or encephalitis (rare)
- Hand-Foot-&-Mouth


What is Herpangina?

- Abrupt onset fever
- Small vesicles on soft palate that rupture & from white ulcers
- More commonly a pediatric disease


What are the symptoms of Hand-Foot-&-Mouth Disease

- Fever
- Vesicular lesions on soles of hand & feet on oral areas
- More commonly a pediatric disease


What is croup? What are the symptoms of croup?

- Acute larygotracheobronchitis ( due to swelling of the subglottic region of the larynx)
- Inspiratory stridor
- "Seal-bark" cough

Note that a prodrome of common cold symptoms precipitates


What is a classic radiographic sign of croup of CXR?

"Steeple Sign"


What should be included in your differential diagnosis of croup?

- FB airway obstruction
- Bacterial epiglotittis (HiB)


How is croup treated? What is the important factor in the diagnostic algorithm?

Does the patient have stridor at rest?

1) Oxygen
2) Racemic-Epi
3) Glucocorticoids

No= Humidified Air Hydration


What is croup most commonly caused by? Specifically, what serotype of the virus is associated with acute croup?

Parainfluenza Virus
- Type 1 is the most common cause of acute croup
- Type 2 & 3 can also cause croup, but Type 3 is more commonly associated with lower respiratory tract infections

Also, RSV & Measles can cause croup


List the characteristics of Parainfluenza.

- Paramyxovirus family
- Helical nucleocapsid
- Envelope contains hemagglutinin & neuraminidase--targets for the immune system to recognize the virus
- -ssRNA
- RNA synthesis occurs in the cytoplasm


How is the parainfulenza virus transmitted?

Large droplets & direct contact


Describe the Parainfluenza virus mechanism of action.

Infection & replication in the ciliated epithelium of the respiratory tract


What are the symptoms of influenza?

- Myalgia
- Headache
- Fever/ shaking chills
- Cough peaking between days 3-5
- Fatigue & malaise


How does the flu differ from the common cold?

- Flu generally lasts longer than the common cold
- Increased severity of symptoms
- Pandemic outbreaks


What is a pandemic?

An epidemic of infectious disease that has spread through human populations across a large region; for instance multiple continents, or even worldwide.


What is the definition of pneumonia?

Inflammation of the lung parenchyma leading to abnormal gas exchange


What are the symptoms of pneumonia?

- Fever
- Chills
- Cough
- Pleural chest pain
- Increased respiratory rate
- Wheezes & crackles
- Hypoxia & cyanosis


What virus typically causes primary influenza virus pneumonia?

Influenza Type A


What are the symptoms of primary influenza virus pneumonia?

1-4 days following flu symptoms:
- Increased cough
- Tachypnea
- Dyspnea
- Acute respiratory distress

High Fatality Rate & typically a progressive decline in patient's status


How is primary influenza virus pneumonia diagnosed?

Sputum Gram Stain
- Abundant PMN cells
- Without significant number of bacteria

- Bilateral, midlung or lower lung infiltration that is more of an interstitial pattern (like atypical pneumonia) rather than a lobular or typical pneumonia


What is bacterial influenza-associated pneumonia?

Pneumonia that onsets a week after influenza symptoms


What are the symptoms of bacterial influenza-associated pneumonia?

Influenza symptoms that lessen, but are then followed by:
- Increased cough
- Return of fever
- Respiratory distress



What bacteria are most commonly associated with bacterial influenza-associated pneumonia?

1) S. pneumoniae
2) S. aureus & H. Influenza

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