Exam 5: Herbs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 5: Herbs Deck (43):
1

What were the most popular products (herbs) used by adults for health reasons?

1. fish oil/omega 3/DHA (37.4%)
2. glucosamine (19.9%)
3. echinacea (19.8%)
4. flaxseed oil or pills (15.9%)
5. ginseng (14.1%)

2

What are the 4 most COMMONLY used herbal preparations

1. multivitamins/multiminerals
2. vitamins E and C
3. Calcium
4. B-complex vitamins

3

List the herbal products and dietary supplements used

Glucosamine or glucosamine/chondroitin
Garlic
Echinacea
Gingko biloba
Herbal tea
Cod liver oil
St John's wort
Ginseng
Saw palmetto

4

What were the most common reasons for taking an herbal product or dietary supplement

1. to improve general wellness
2. to help manage arthritis
3. to help prevent or manage colds
4. to improve memory

5

What were the 5 herbal supplements that had the greatest number of documented interactions with medications

1. St. John's wort
2. Magnesium
3. calcium
4. iron
5. ginkgo

6

What medications had the greatest number of reported interactions with HDS?

1. warfarin (MOST)
2. insulin
3. aspirin
4. digoxin
5. ticlopidine

7

Which herbs are commonly involved in bleeding?

ginkgo, garlic, ginseng, ginger
****Antagonize platelet activating factor

8

T or F, All herbal medicines should be discontinued for 14 days prior to surgery (including oral surgery)

True

9

When the "g" is followed by a vowel...?

the herb is associated with a bleeding effect

10

When the "g" is followed by a consonant...?

there is not a concern for bleeding

11

List the effects of garlic

Anti-lipidemic
Antimicrobial
Anti-asthmatic
Anti-Inflammatory

12

List the components of garlic that have been implicated with bleeding

1. Ajoene
2. Allicin (Strong odor; platelet effect is irreversible)
3. Sulfur containing compounds

13

What effect does Garlic have on bleeding

Antiplatelet
- inhibits production and/or release of chemical mediators

14

Effects of Ginkgo

- Prevent decreased cerebral function
- Peripheral vascular insufficiency associated with Alzheimer's disease or age-related dementia
- Improve memory and cognition

15

What components of Ginkgo are implicated in bleeding

Terpenoids
- potent antagonists of platelet activating factor
- Long-lasting and rapid onset with oral dosing

ANTI PLATELET effect ** Increases prothrombin time and decreases platelet activity

16

Ginkgo has risk for severe spontaneous bleeding with concurrent use of what other drugs?

Aspirin
Warfarin

17

List the effects of Ginseng

Anti-cncer
Slows aging
Prevent heart attack
Improve digestion
Reduce hypertension
Strengthen immunity
CNS stimulant

18

What components of Ginseng have been implicated in bleeding

Ginsenosides

ANTI PLATELET effect ***inhibit PAF, platelet aggregation, thrombin and thromboplastin

19

Ginseng potentiates bleeding with what other drugs?

aspirin
NSAIDS
warfarin
heparin

20

Effects of Ginger

Relieve motion sickness and morning sickness
Decrease arthritis pain and inflammation
Relieve upset stomach

21

What components of Ginger have been implicated in bleeding

Pungent principles
Volatile oils
Proteolytic enzymes

ANTI PLATELET effect ***reduces platelet thromboxane, inhibits platelet aggregation

22

Effects of Feverfew

Anti-inflammatory (RA)
Preventive for migraine headache
Muscle soreness

23

What is the anti platelet effect of Feverfew

Inhibits platelet aggregation

24

Feverfew may cause what?

***Irritation of oral mucosa and tongue
- Increases risk for photosensitivity

25

Effect of St. John's Wort

Reduce mild to moderate depression

26

What are the major active anti depressive constituents are in St John's wort

1. hyperforin (MAJOR)
2. hypericin

Others
3. flavonoids
4. tannins

27

Hyperforin has been shown to do what biochemically?

inhibit uptake of 5-HT, dopamine, norepinephrine, GABA and glutamate

28

What components of St. John's wort have been implicated in bleeding

hypericin

***Induces some cytochrome P450 liver enzymes
- **Reduces anticoagulant effect of warfarin (increases clotting) and lowers the INR

29

Effects of Vitamin E

Antioxidant
1. Prevents oxidation of vitamins A and C
2. Protects polyunsaturated fatty acids in membranes from free radical damage
3. Protects RBCs against hemolysis

**May also alter the effect of Vitamin K on clotting factors

30

Use of Echinacea

Common Cold
Cough
Bronchitis

31

Adverse effects of Echinacea

Hepatotoxic, especially when used with other hepatotoxic med

32

Echinacea may decrease effectiveness of what other drugs

corticosteroids

33

Use for Feverfew

Migraine prophylaxis
Fever reduction
Anti-inflammatory (RA, muscle soreness)

34

Feverfew is contraindicated when?

Pregnancy

35

What adverse effect may occur with Feverfew

May cause irritation of oral mucosa/tongue
Up to 15% of users may develop aphthous ulcers

36

Use of Kava-Kava

Anxiety, Stress relief
Minor tranquilizer actions
Skeletal muscle relaxant

37

Effects of Kava-Kava

Potentiates CNS effects of other CNS depressants: alcohol, BDZs, barbiturates, etc.

***Caution with sedation dentistry

38

Kava-Kava is contraindicated when?

in Pregnancy, lactation and Parkinson's disease

39

Use of Licorice

gastric disorders
antitussive
aphthous ulcers
herpes simplex

40

Licorice may cause what?

hypertension
May alter platelet aggregation

41

Licorice is contraindicated when?

Pregnancy, lactation, liver or renal impairment

42

Use of Valerian

mild sedative
mild anxiolytic
anxiety, depression, insomnia

43

Effects of Valerian

Potentiates the effects of CNS depressants, including barbiturates