Exam 6 Flashcards Preview

Pathophysiology Lab > Exam 6 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 6 Deck (88):
1

List the order of blood flow through the heart

Blood comes from the body to the heart through the Superior Vena Cava and the Inferior Vena Cava -> to the right atrium -> right atrioventricular valve (tricuspid valve) -> right ventricle -> pulmonary semilunar valve -> pulmonary trunk -> pulmonary arteries -> lungs -> pulmonary veins -> left atrium -> left atrioventricular valve (bicuspid or mitral valve) -> left ventricle -> aortic semilunar valve -> aorta -> systemic capillaries

2

What are the important anatomical differences in fetal circulation

Ductus venosus, foramen ovale, and ductus arteriosus

3

What is the job of the ductus venosus

Shunts a portion of the left umbilical vein blood flow directly to the inferior vena cava; allows oxygenated blood to bypass the liver

4

What is the job of the foramen ovale

Hole in the between the atria that allows oxygenated blood to bypass pulmonary circulation

5

What is the job of the ductus arteriosus

Blood vessel that connects the pulmonary artery to the proximal descending aorta; allows blood from the right ventricle to bypass the fetus's fluid-filled lungs

6

Explain the electrical conducting system of the heart starting at the SA node

SA node -> sends signal first and contract artia -> new signal sends to AV node -> sends signal down bundle of his -> branch off into bundle branches (purkinje fibers) -> conduction fibers

7

How does pressure affect blood flow

Increased pressure decreases pressure

8

How does vasodilation affect blood flow

Increases blood flow

9

How does vasoconstriction affect blood flow

Decreases blood flow

10

How does viscosity affect blood flow

As the viscosity increases (thickens) blood flow is decreased

11

How does vessel diameter affect flow

The larger the diameter the faster the flow

12

How does length affect flow

As the length of the vessel is longer the flow decreases

13

List the 4 categories of heart disease

Congestive heart failure (CHF), coronary artery disease, valvular heart disease, and myocardial infarction (heart attack)

14

Blood entering the left side of the heart comes from the _______ and carries oxygenated blood to the ________

Lungs; body

15

Blood entering the right side of the heart comes from the ______ and is pumped to the _______

Vena cava; lungs

16

Which side of the heart is damaged in congestive heart failure

Left side

17

List 3 symptoms of congestive heart failure

Shortness of breath, coughing, and discomfort when lying down

18

What happens in severe congestive heart failure

Backs up into the lungs, lungs fill with fluid; no O2 exchange can occur

19

Cor pulmonale (right side of hear) leads to what condition

Backs up into the body leading to edema

20

List 3 symptoms of Cor pulmonale

Dilated veins in the neck, swollen liver and spleen, and difficulty walking due to edema

21

List 4 conditions that may lead to heart failure

Valvular defect - not closing all the way, arrhythmias, myocarditis, arteriosclerosis

22

List 3 general symptoms of heart failure

Shortness of breath, chronic fatigue, and orthopnea (hard to breathe when lying down)

23

What are two risk factors of heart disease

Smoking and obesity

24

What are some treatments for heart disease

Medications, surgery, lifestyle changes, or a combination

25

Which medication increases the force of the heart contractions

Digitalis

26

Which medications widen blood vessels

Vasodilators

27

Which medications eliminate salt and water from the body

Diuretics

28

Congenital heart conditions include:

Left side obstruction and malformation

29

What two dietary components may be adjusted to treat heart disease

Low Na+ and low fat

30

Define Raynaud syndrome

Arteriole cold-induced vasospasm

31

Define Temporary ischemia

Cause of angina

32

Define Mitral stenosis

Left atrial dilation with pulmonary hypertension

33

Define Emboli

Circulating matter blocks blood vessel

34

Define Hypertension

Systolic blood pressure greater than 140

35

Define Cor Pulmonale

Liver and spleen enlargement, elevated venous pressure, ascites, and distended jugular veins

36

Define Secondary hypertension

Stress-induced hypertension

37

Define Myocardial ischemia

Angina pectoris or silent ischemia

38

Define Heparin/TPA

Treatment for thrombi/emboli

39

Define Tamponade

Effusion of fluid in pericardial space leading to a serious compression of the heart

40

Define Aneurysm

Pouching of vessel wall

41

Define Buerger disease

Inflammatory disease of peripheral arteries/young male smokers

42

Define Thrombus

Blood clot attached to a vessel wall

43

Define Atherosclerosis

Fat and fibrin deposits cause thickening of vessel wall

44

Define Congestive heart failure

Heart's function as a pump is inadequate to meet the body's needs

45

Define Tetralogy of Fallot

4 heart defects lead to cyanosis, possible syncope and seizures

46

Define Patent ductus arteriosus

Pulmonary artery and aorta connection fails to close

47

Define Coarctation of the aorta

Malformation causing increased blood flow to the head and upper extremities and decreased blood flow to the lower extremities

48

Define Transposition of great vessels

Switch between pulmonary and systemic circulation creating two separate pump systems

49

Define Ventral septal defect

Most common type of congenital heart defect contributing to left ventricle enlargement

50

Define Atrial septic defect

Left to right shunt, most commonly occurring type is a patent foramen ovale

51

Describe the relationship between radius and blood flow

Exponential; as the radius increases the flow increases

52

Describe the relationship between pressure and blood flow

Linear

53

Describe the relationship between length and blood flow

Inverse; as the length increases the flow decreases due to more resistance

54

What is a hormone?

Mediator molecule secreted directly into the blood by endocrine glands

55

Where are neurohypophysis hormones made and secreted?

Made in the cell bodies of the neurosecretory neurons in the hypothalamus and are secreted in response to nerve impulses from the posterior pituitary

56

What 2 hormones are secreted from the posterior pituitary?

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and Oxytocin (OT)

57

What are the function/target cells of ADH and OT?

ADH: control cells at distal collecting tubule to prevent secretion of water - kidney; retains Na+ and pulls H2O with it kicking out K+
OT: contracts uterus in child birth and releasing milk for lactation

58

What are 5 actions of hormones?

1. Control the composition and volume of internal environment
2. Emergency control during stress
3. Growth and development
4. Reproductive control
5. Regulate metabolism and energy balance

59

What are the names for the 2 lobes of the pituitary?

Adenohypophysis (Anterior pituitary) and Neurohypophysis (Posterior pituitary)

60

Define General adaptation syndrome

The body's short-term and long-term reactions to stress

61

Define Resistance stage

Activation of the sympathetic nervous system causing the hypothalamus to stimulate the pituitary

62

Define Exhaustion stage

Continuous, uncompensated stress, disease can result

63

Define Alarm stage

Activation of the CNS

64

Type I diabetes, found in children is also called ______

Juvenile, early onset, or insulin-dependent

65

Insulin is needed for _____ to penetrate _____

Glucose; the cells

66

List differences between Type I diabetes and Type II diabetes

Type I: Insulin dependent, acute onset (suddenly out of insulin), and occurs mostly in children
Type II: Affects adults (mostly due to obesity) and has a gradual onset

67

Type I diabetes is treated with ______

Insulin injections

68

Diabetics have a _____ disposition which is triggered by _____, ________, or _______ factors

Genetic; viral, environmental, or dietary

69

List symptoms of undiagnosed diabetes

Frequent urination, increased thirst, high blood sugar, and weight loss

70

Diabetes is managed by maintaining _____

Constanst blood glucose level

71

Long term complications of diabetes may include:

Heart attacks, damaged to eyes, damaged to kidneys, etc

72

Define hypoglycemia

Decreased blood sugar; not enough sugar in the blood

73

Symptoms of hypoglycemia include:

Sweating, fatigue, headache, and vision problems

74

Severe hypoglycemia can lead to ____ and can be reversed with a ______ injection

Convulsions; glucagon

75

Define hyperglycemia

Increased blood sugar; too much sugar in the blood

76

Symptoms of hyperglycemia include:

Intense thirst, increased hunger, frequent urination

77

Severe hyperglycemia can lead to a

Coma

78

Diabetes is the leading cause of _______ and _______

Blindness and kidney failure

79

Individuals developing antibodies to pancreatic cells can be treated with small doses of ______ as a prevention measure

Insulin

80

Other treatment methods being researched are:

Insulin pill, pancreas transplant, vaccine, micro-transplantation

81

What hormones are produced in the anterior pituitary?

Human growth hormone (HGH), Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Lutenizing hormone (LH), and Prolactin (PRL)

82

What is the main function and target for HGH?

Aids in growth of cells during adolescents; all cells in the body

83

What is the main function and target for TSH?

Sends signal to thyroid to release T3 and T4 which are used for metabolism

84

What is the main function and target for ACTH?

Sends signals to the adrenal cortex to release Cortisol, aldosterone, testosterone, and estrogen

85

What is the main function and target for FSH?

Aids in development of ovum and sperm

86

What is the main function and target for LH?

Aids in ovulation, uterus lining development, and production of testosterone

87

What is the main function and target for PRL?

Releases lactation in women during breast feeding

88

What are the stages of stress?

Alarm, Resistance, exhaustion