Exam #6: Taste & Olfaction Flashcards Preview

Medical Physiology > Exam #6: Taste & Olfaction > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam #6: Taste & Olfaction Deck (24):
1

List the five primary sensations of taste.

Sour
Salty
Sweet
Bitter
Umami

2

What substances elicit sour taste?

Acids e.g. HCl

3

What substances elicit salty taste?

Ionized salts i.e. NaCl

4

What substances elicit sweet taste?

Sugars
Glycols (poisoning)
Alcohols
Amino acids

5

What substances elicit bitter taste?

Alkaloids
Caffeine
Nicotine

6

What substances elicit umami taste?

MSG
Glutamate
Amino acids

*Meat & cheese

7

What cranial nerves are involved in transmitting taste information?

CN VII
CN IX
CN X

8

Which cranial nerve innervates the anterior 2/3 of the tongue?

CN VII

9

Which CN innervates the back of the tongue?

CN IX

10

Which CN innervates the soft palate, the epiglottis and esophagus?

Soft palate= CN VII
Epiglottis & esophagus= CN X

11

How do we classify taste receptor cells? Is it a neuron?

Taste buds are specialized sensory receptor for taste transduction

12

How do we classify olfactory receptor cells? is it a neuron?

Olfactory receptors are bipolar neurons

13

What is the average life span of taste receptor cells? How does this compare to olfactory neurons?

Taste= 10 days- 2 weeks
Olfactory= ~60 days

14

What is the biological role of taste?

- Protection--bitter substances can stimulate protrusion of the tongue and gag
- Edibility
- Diet selection
- Taste aversion

15

What is the biological role of olfaction?

- Combine with taste to get gustatory sensation
- Pharamones for sex

16

What is bait-shyness?

If an animal feels sick after eating, assumption is that the novel food is responsible--animal will lose taste for the food

17

What is the clinical significance of bait-shyness?

This is how we lose a taste for something that has been perceived to make us sick

18

What is hyposmia?

Decrease sense of smell

19

What is anosmia?

No sense of smell

20

What is parosmia?

Perversion of the sense of smell

21

What is hypogeusia?

Less taste sensation

22

What is ageusia?

No taste sensation

23

What is parageusia?

Perversion of the sense of taste i.e. a bad taste in the mouth

24

Outline the afferent pathway of taste information.

1) CN
2) NTS
3) VPM of the Thalamus
4) Insular & frontal taste cortices

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