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Flashcards in exam Deck (59):
1

define psychology

The study of thoughts,feelings and behaviours,which are all heavily influenced by biology, past experience and cultural aspects

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APS

Australian Psychological Society

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Psychiatrist

Specialise in the diagnosis, prevention and study of mental disorders. Have a medieval degree and can prescribe medicine

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Psychologist

Evaluates and studies behaviour and mental processes. Not a doctor

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Hypothesis

A prediction, suggestion it educated guess about possible results of an experiment. Usually begins with the word 'that'

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Population

The group of people you are studying or researching

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Sample

A sub group of the population that represents the population. For example; studying a same of 100 people instead of the population of 1 million people

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Participant

A person (or animal) taking part in the study. They used to be called subjects but that is not ethically correct

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Random sampling

Every person In the population has an equal opportunity of being selected. Example; could be drawn out of a hat

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Stratified sampling

divide the population into groups called 'strata'. A sample is then drawn from the strata. Example of strata are state, age or gender.

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Variable

A factor or element that can change in observable and measurable ways. There are 3 major types of variable.

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Independent variable

The variable that is of interest to the researcher. The psychologists want to know whether the IV will cause an effect. Example; IV is usually a treatment being tested

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Dependent variable

The variable that is being measured and it is the response to the IV. Example; the participants response to the treatment

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Extraneous Variable

Out of your control, A nuisance. Example; and allergic reaction

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Control group

Group of participants who do not receive the IV. Baseline to compare those involved against

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Experimental group

Participants who receive the IV

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Experiment

Conducted in an environment under the control of researchers

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Natural observation

Psychologists observe people or animals in their natural habitat

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central nervous system

Made up of the brain and Spinal chord. It's main role is to process information delivers to it from the peripheral nervous system

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Peripheral nervous system

This consists of the outlying Neurons that deliver messages from sensory receptors and organs throughout the body to and from the CNS

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Motor neurons

Carry messages from the CNS to the Different parts of the body

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Sensory neurons

Carry messages form the sensory organs to the CNS

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Association neurons

Found only in the CNS and connect the motor and sensory neurons

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Neurotransmitters

The bodies natural chemical messengers that can alter the activity of neighbouring neurons

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Seratonin

Involved in sleep , arousal and the experience of emotions. Too little or too much can cause anxiety or sleep disorders

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Dopamine

Involved in voluntary movement, learning and thinking. Too little can relate to ADHD , too much is Schitz. I'm

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Learning

Moving information from short term to long term memory. The more we use that information, the stronger the memory .

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Hormones

The bodies chemical messengers, which have an effect on glands distributed throughout the body

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Pancreas

Produces insulin and glucose

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Thyroid

Regulates metabolism

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Adrenal gland

Produces adrenaline and prepares you for fight or flight

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Neuropsychology

aims to understand the relationship between the structure and function of the brain

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Cerebral spinal fluid

Suspends brain in the head, supplies brain with nutrients and protects brain form knocks to the head

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Brain damage

The affect of an injury to different parts of the Brain. It can have different affects based on what part of the brain was damaged

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REM

A period of time when your eyes move rapidly for short bursts at a time

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NREM

Heart rate and breathing are regular and slower than R.E.M. Sleep. NREM dreams are less frequent

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subjective experience

What we feel and label as an emotion
Example; anger

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Expressive behaviour

What others can see of how we feel
Example; facial expression and body language

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Physiological Arousal

Within our body
Example; heart rate and breathing patterns

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Emotion

A mind and bodies intergrated response to a stimulus of Some kind. Emotions involve physiological arousal, expressive behaviour and conscience experience
.

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Limbic system

Contains a number of structures in the brain that interact and probably involved in emotional experiences and behaviours

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Hypothalamus

Converts emotional stimuli into autonomic and endocrine responses. These are physiological and hormonal reactions

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Temperament

The inborn qualities that determine how well we interact with our environment

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Pseudoscience

A well established belief that had not changed in a long time such as astrology.

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Empirical evidence

Data gathered through investigation and experimentation.

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Ethical considerations

>no lasting harm
> confidentiality
> voluntary participation
> right to withdraw
> minimal deception
> debriefing

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Sensory memeory

What you see, hear, feel, smell and taste. Only lay a few seconds unless you pay attention to it

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Coding

Moving information from short term to long term

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Cerebellum

Part of the brain that is responsible for balance and movement

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Amygdala

Associated with the emotions of fear and anger. Plays a key role on our emotional responses

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Left brain hemisphere

> controls right side of body
> speaking and writing
> logical bought
> science

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Right brain hemisphere

> controls the left side of body
> solving puzzles
> reading maps
>creativity
> music appreciation

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Dendrites

Detect incoming messages form neighbouring nourons and send to the soma

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Psychoanalytic dream theory

yes dreams have meaning. FREUDS THEORY. Symbols are all very sexual and aggressive

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Problem solving theory

Dreams have meaning but don't Have to be analysed

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Activation synthesis dream theory

Dreams are meaningless. Neurons are randomly first done the brain stem and then the brain put memory's and past experiences into situations and

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Circadian rhythm

Roughly a 24 hour cycle in the physiological processes of living Beings

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6 universal facial expressions

Happiness, sadness , anger , fear , disgust and suprise

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Para linguistic cues

non-verbal cues related to speech including tone of voice and length of pauses