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Flashcards in Exam Deck (38):

Wealth for Homer

More wealth = more possessions for gift economy, low wealth = in danger and separated from eikos


Gods + honor for Homer

Honor earned on battlefield, better to die in battle than flee, Gods seen as always just


3 parts of human soul for Plato

Reasoning, appetite, courageous


Homeric eikos

Father leads households, if failure becomes aischron

Joining multiple eikos for alliances, more honor = more access to friendships with other agathos


Homeric friendships

More valuable resource, attained by gifts

If friendship unequal lesser friend can perform other favors or work but could not be perfect friends --> wealthier person will always be suspicious


Philosophical traits of Homer

Humans are social and need other humans
World is violent in nature since humans need to fight to gain honor
Gods are present and active in human life
Female have virtues but are lesser because they naturally have less desire to fight and are physically weaker. Same with weak men
No equal friendship between men and women


Politics of homeric eikos

Laws based on personal judgement of eikos as well as customs
Hospitality important, expected to provide refuge to stranded people
Conspicuous giving builds status, helping others also observed by gods who give rewards


Plato's polis

Urban, loyalty to place instead of clan, meant to facilitate good life


Why democracy bad for Plato

Leaders poorly chosen and goals too much in flux --> story about the ships sent to raze island


Plato on human nature

Soul separate from body, can be well or poorly ordered depending on conduct of person. Gods are always good and reincarnation where next life can be chosen exists


Plato on forms

Forms are the essential truths that exist for every object
Can be accessed by all humans but vast majority will not since don't necessarily need to, appetite dominates for most people
Humans purest when born, corrupted by world around them and appetite
F1 (understanding) F2 (reasoning/knowing form exists but not understanding) S1 (seeing objects clearly) S2 (seeing imitations of objects such as art)


Plato on political participation

Only some need high levels of it based on which part of soul dominant, highly reasoning may want to philosophize rather than engage in politics


Plato on education

People need education, music + gymnastics to create rhythm and harmony
Show people good parts of gods to mould soul better, give something to aspire to


Plato on women

Just as able to become guardians because even though physically weaker they are capable of leading


Plato on slaves

Not equal, can also be internal slave to appetite


Good life for Plato's philosophers

Life of understanding is best, harmony in inner self, more likely to be leaders
Need education and intellectual challenge, time to contemplate
Shouldn't have too many personal possessions since they would cloud judgement, instead have simple communal goods
Unhappiness worthy sacrifice to build good polity as guardians, plus only have to govern for 5 years


Good life for Plato's soldiers

Want to live life of courage so should have weapons, education, training, but still simple communal possessions


Good life for Plato's appetitive

Need possessions of higher standard and need to strike balance between too many and too little luxuries
Give up political power but don't care since still get what they want, can have own family and home


Political characteristics of polity

Only big enough to provide good life, set inland in productive area that is safe from attack
Should not have too many laws, rather more based on customs


Philosophers in Plato's polity

Create good polity by finding good king, training guardians by telling noble lies and observing the best children for training
Honor gods and create, guard laws
Limit wealth that can be obtained, too much wealth coarsens people


Why do polities fall apart

Bad leader will eventually be chosen by mistake, population will become too turned onto wealth and people become selfish


Characteristics of Plato's law state

Location away from sea since commerce is bad temptation
5040 people, 2 plots of land in outside and inside
Richest person can only have 4x as much as poorest
Shared meals
Lots of agriculture, slaves do hard labor, metics (out of city workers) do commerce
Women are active but not politically since they get married
Religion important, education censored, atheists imprisoned


Good life for Aristotle

Must live in good polity and have good character but can live comfortably with own possessions
Poverty takes one out of polity and causes bad decisions (first instinct to eat), excess also bad, middle ground is liberality
About intellectual value and living in modest comfort since people who philosophize do not need too many possessions
Having relationships with equals
Moral virtue and avoiding both excess and deficiency


Three areas of knowledge for Aristotle

Theoretical (about contemplation, based on truth and philosophy)
Productive (based on morals acquired by experience, seek good life)
Practical (based on craft knowledge, doing things well)


Truth for Aristotle

About finding the mean between two extremes, can be verified by all through experience (rejects forms)


3 types of friendship for Aristotle

For sake of pleasure
For utility
Perfect friendship (same moral values, will take care of family when dead)


Qualities of people for Aristotle

Greek adult men best
Slaves physically strong but need masters to help control themselves or else will cause harm
All not Greek are servile, Europeans have spirit but not intelligence, Asians have intelligence but not spirit
Children must be developed
Women lack authority


Religion for Aristotle

Gods are only present in spirit, don't pay any attention to people
Universe was always present, not created by gods
Job of gods is to keep universe rotating
When people die, part of soul returns to universe, no afterlife


Household management, giving for Aristotle

Giving must be done with equals and must be appropriate object, amount
Household management about obtaining goods for good life


Types of occupation for Aristotle

Shouldn't do things for profit since household management about making just enough for good life while money is limitless
Reputable occupations include hunting, fishing, farming, piracy --> making goods out of nothing


Military for Aristotle

Based on needs of polity
Sea requires navy and infantry while plains requires cavalry


Political institutions for Aristotle

Eikos most important, polity made up of many eikos and just big enough to facilitate needs
Empire too big and individuals too removed from decision making


Types of democracy for Aristotle

Moderate (many participate but are making living, property qualification to hold office and institutions moderate)
With some restraints (still cost barrier to participate)
Little restraint (all free born participate)
Extreme (all participate)


Types of oligarchy for Aristotle

Moderate to extreme based how many property owners are in the ruling class


Kingship for Aristotle

Not ideal because since king is above all others can lead to loss of self control


Ideal polity for Aristotle

Next to sea, private property, small but sufficient, rule by merit


Next best polity for Aristotle

Large middle class because won't go to extremes since large group to satisfy, likely to follow reason and know how to rule since poverty and extreme wealth cloud judgement, more likely to follow common interest and laws


Political change for Aristotle

Statis is change beyond law
Constitutional change is natural and can come internal or external