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1

what is the cell membrane called?

plasma membrane

2

list 2 functions of the plasma membrane

protect cells from surroundings
selective transport

3

what does glycoprotein do?

proteins with sugar attached to them
help stabilise the membrane structure

4

what does the phospholipid bilayer do?

allow water molecules to pass through the cell

5

what do hydrophobic fatty acids tails do?

repel water and make up the bilayer

6

what do hydrophilic phosphate heads do?

attracts water and makes up the bilayer

7

what do cholesterol lipids do?

help maintain flexibility of membrane

8

define osmosis?

movement of water molecules across a semi-permeable cell membrane from a region of hight solvent concentration to an area of low concerntration

9

define isotonic?

solutions with an equal level of concentration

10

define hypertonic?

solutions with more solute and less solvent

11

define hypotonic?

solution with more solvent and less solute

12

define solute and solvent

sugar is the solute and water is the solvent

13

define EUKARYOTE

COMPLEX
plant and animal
rectangular
large vacuole
chloroplasts
photosynthesis
cell wall(not animals)
cell membrane
Eukaryotic cells contain membrane-bound organelles, including a nucleus. Eukaryotes can be single-celled or multi-celled, such as you, me, plants, fungi, and insects.

14

define PROKARYOTE

SIMPLE
bacteria
no nuclear envelope
no organelles
virus(not living without a host)
archaea(form of alge)
multicellular organisms
NOT membrane bound
Bacteria are an example of prokaryotes. Prokaryotic cells do not contain a nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelle.

15

name a prokaryote example

coli

16

name a eukaryote example

plant
animal

17

define cell

the basic structural and functional units of life, all living organisms are built of one or more cells

18

why are cells so small?

the smaller it is the more efficient it is in the two way exchange of materials across the plasma membrane

19

surface area to volume ratio meaning

As the cell gets BIGGER, the SA:V ratio DECREASES.
As the cell gets SMALLER, the SA:V ratio INCREASES.

20

define nucleus

stores the cells DNA
coordinates the cells activities

21

define mitochondria

produces energy for the cell
power house of the cell

22

define ribosomes

makes protein

23

define smooth ER

regulates and releases calcium ions and processes toxins

24

define rough ER

assembly of proteins

25

define Golgi complex

process' and bundles proteins and lipids

26

define lysosomes

remove wastes

27

define peroxisomes

break down fatty acids

28

define chloroplast

convert light energy from the sun into sugars

29

define cytoskeleton

gives the cell shape and offers support

30

define active transport

movement of a dissolved substance across a plasma membrane in an energy requiring process
from a region of lower concentration to a higher concentration

31

define facilitated diffusion

Transport of substances across a membrane from an area of HIGH CONCENTRATION to an area of LOWER CONCENTRATION by involving a carrier molecule

32

define osmosis

net movement of water across a partially permeable membrane without an input of energy and down a concentration gradient

33

define simple diffusion

the movement of a substance across the phospholipid bilayer from a region of higher concentration to one of a lower concentration

34

Autotroph

plant
photosynthesis
makes its own food by using light or chemical energy

35

Heterotroph

animals
don't photosynthesis
rely on other organisms for food

36

Glucose

organic molecule
produces sugar which produces energy
contains carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
C6 H12 O6

37

organic molecules

carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids

38

inorganic molecules

sodium, water, carbon

39

glycogen

stores long-term energy in adipose tissue

40

adipose cell

fat storage cell
fatty tissue
inhumans and animals
may be located around organs

41

chlorophyll

pigment
vital for photosynthesis
allows plants to absorb energy from light
only in plants

42

energy transformation PLANTS

autotrophs - food - photosynthesis - SUNLIGHT

sunlight - glucose, chemical energy
(requires light, water, carbon dioxide, pigments(CHLOROPHYLL))

43

energy transformation ANIMALS

heterotrophs - cannot make its own food(consumer)
food is ingested
broken down for absorption
used to produce energy
glucose
cellular respiration
allows ATP to be made

44

energy storage
GLYCOGEN
FAT

GLYCOGEN
short term
muscles, liver

FAT
longterm
adipose tissue or fat cells

45

photosynthesis

WHAT- process in which plants uses energy from sunlight to produce glucose from carbon dioxide and water
WHEN- all the time, when light strikes the photo stem and exits their electrons. it can either be natural or artificial light.
WHERE- takes place in chloroplast, we recognise this as a green pigment that contains chlorophyll

46

ATP
Adenosine Tri Phosphate

energy rich molecule
usable energy from in cells

47

inputs and outputs of PHOTOSYNTHESIS

INPUTS
light energy
water
carbon dioxide

OUTPUTS
oxygen
glucose sugar

48

Aerobic cellular respiration

WHAT- process of producing cellular energy with the use of oxygen
WHEN- all the time, when oxygen and glucose is present
WHERE- mitochondria

49

anaerobic cellular respiration

WHAT- type of respiration that does not use energy
WHEN- used when there is not enough oxygen for aerobic respiration
WHERE- adipose tissue

50

cell shapes

star shaped (motor neuron cells)
spherical (egg cells)
columnar (gut cells)
flat (skin cells)
elongates (human smooth muscle cells)
dish shaped (human red blood cells)
cuboidal (human kidney cells)

51

why are cells so small?

the smaller the cell the more efficient it is

52

SA:V ratio

the SA:V ratio os a smaller object is higher then a larger object of the same shape, the higher the SA:V ratio the greater efficiency of the two way exchange

53

nucleus

stores the cells DNA
coordinates the cells activities

54

mitochondria

provides energy for the cell

55

ribosomes

makes protein

56

smooth ER

regulates and releases calcium ions and processes toxins

57

rough ER

assembly of proteins

58

Golgi complex

processes and bundles proteins and lipids

59

lysosomes

removes wastes

60

peroxisomes

break down fatty acids

61

chloroplast

covert light energy from the sun into sugars

62

cytoskeleton

gives the cell shape and offers support

63

homostasis

process go maintaining a steady state within the body

64

tolerence range

36-39
if this range is breached the body will enter a range of physiological stress

65

stimulus response model
STIMULUS
RECEPTOR
CONTROL CENTER
EFFECTOR
RESPONCE

^NEGATIVE FEEDBACK^

involves the detection of an irregular state within the body and makes adjustments to fix this behaviour
e.g.
-STIMULUS. -FALL IN BODY TEMP


RESPONCE SHIVERING

66

negative feedback

when the body realises there is a change in a variable. it reverses this change to keep the body out of physiological stress

67

adaptions

a component by which an animal has certain traits that makes it easier to survive in its environment

68

chloroplast cell structure
STROMA
THYLAKOID
GRANUM
LUMEN
LAMELLA

STROMA - fluid
THYLAKOID
GRANUM - stack of thylakoids
LUMEN - inside of thylakoid
LAMELLA - connects the granum

69

xylem

transports water and minerals to the roots of the plant

70

inputs and outputs of photosynthesis

INPUTS
light energy
water
carbon dioxide
OUTPUTS
oxygen
glucose

71

biomimicry

being inspired by natures ideas to achieve new designs, products and processes e.g velcro

72

tissues in mammals

epithelial tissue
muscle tissue
connective tissue
nervous tissue

73

components to blood

white blood cells
platelets
red blood cells
plasma

74

phloem

transports sugars

75

types of diabetes

TYPE 1
when the pancreas doesn't produce enough insulin
TYPE 2
when the body doesn't respond the the production of insulin