Flashcards in Exam 7 Deck (51):
Name two functions of the respiratory system
Oxygen and Carbon dioxide exchange for metabolism; getting O2 in and pushing CO2 out
Where in the brain is the respiratory center that controls the respiratory system?
What system work with the respiratory system to maintain blood pH?
The respiratory system maintains blood pH by controlling the level of what molecule?
Name the primary muscle of respiration
What nerve intervals the diaphragm?
A bluish color of the skin due to increased amounts of deoxygenated hemoglobin in the blood
Collapsed or abnormal structure of the alveoli
What molecule helps break up water surface tension in the alveoli?
What type of cell makes surfactant?
Type II pneumocytes
External respiration is the exchange of gases between what?
Alveoli and the internal capillaries
Internal respiration is the exchange of gases between what?
Systemic capillaries and the tissue cells
Define glomerular filtration
Fluid in the blood is filtered across the capillaries of the glomerulus and into the urinary space of the Bowman's capsule; size - small passes through, holds back RBC, platelets, and proteins
Define Tubular secretion
Some substances that are not needed by the body are removed from the blood and discharged into the urine (blood urea nitrogen and creatinine)
Define Tubular reabsorption
Process that pulls materials from the tubular fluid and returns it to the blood stream (glucose, Na+, amino acids, and proteins) pull water and renal tubule to peritubular capillaries
As sodium goes, so goes ______
When moving electrolytes between body fluids what must be maintained?
How is the neutrality maintained?
# of cations - # of anions
How many nephrons are in one kidney?
1 X 10^8
What happens to the glomerular filtration rate when you increase the afferent arteriole radius?
If the afferent arteriole radius is .30 mm does blood flow through the nephron?
What is the glomerular filtration rate when the afferent arteriole radius is .30 mm?
0; there isn't enough pressure to push the fluid out of the arteriole
What happens to the glomerular filtration rate when you increase the efferent arteriole radius?
What happens to the glomerular filtration rate when you decrease the efferent radius?
As pressure increases what happens to the pressure in the glomerulus?
What happens to the glomerular filtration rate as you increase pressure?
What happens to the urine volume as you increase the pressure?
When the glomerular filtration rate is zero what is the kidney function?
Kidney failure (<15 ml/min)
What is the major substance that needs to be removed form the blood?
Blood urea nitrogen
CO2 + H2O --> H2CO3 --> H+ + HCO3-
High H+ = low pH (acidic) Low H+ = high pH (alkaline)
Anatomically describe the location of the GI tract
Long lumen going from the mouth to the anus
What structures make up the GI tract?
Mouth -> pharynx -> esophagus -> stomach -> duodenum -> jejunum -> ilium -> ilial secal valve -> secum -> ascending colon -> transverse colon -> descending colon -> sigmoid colon -> rectum -> anus
What process occurs in the mouth?
Chewing (mechanical) and salivation (chemical) - amylase
What process occurs in the esophagus?
Moving of bolus (mechanical)
What process occurs in the stomach?
Curing of food (mechanical) and breaking down of food with HCl and pepsin (chemical)
What process occurs in the duodenum?
Enzymes (bicarbonate) from pancreas are added in to further break down food (chemical), bile from the liver/gallbladder breaks down fat (chemical), and mixing, moving, and migration of chyme (mechanical)
What process occurs in the jejunum/ilium?
Absorption of nutrients taken to vein and liver filters it (hepatic portal vein)
What process occurs in the large intestine?
Forming stool due to reabsorption of water
What process occurs in the rectum?
What process occurs in the anus?
Internal sphincter is automatic and triggers external sphincter which is voluntary
Where is mucus secreted?
From the stomach to the anus
Two diseases classified as inflammatory bowel diseases
Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis
Crohn's disease is an inflammation of which layers of the intestinal wall?
Transmural (goes all the way through) mucosa, submucosa, and external - effects any part usually the bowels - proximal end (ilium)
Ulcerative colitis is an inflammation of what?
Mucosa of rectum and colon (distal end)
List 2 rare complications of Ulcerative colitis?
Acute hemorrhage and Toxic mega colon
List the symptoms of Crohn's disease
Stomach cramp, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and fever
What is a possible complication of Crohn's disease?
Stenosis and fistuals
List the classic symptoms of Ulcerative Colitis
Chronic diarrhea and blood in stool
What tests are used to further diagnose inflammatory bowel disease?
Ultrasound, endoscopy, x-rays, and surgery
List 3 methods for treating inflammatory bowel disease
Steroids, surgery, and nutritional therapy