Exam 7 Flashcards Preview

Pathophysiology Lab > Exam 7 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 7 Deck (51):
1

Name two functions of the respiratory system

Oxygen and Carbon dioxide exchange for metabolism; getting O2 in and pushing CO2 out

2

Where in the brain is the respiratory center that controls the respiratory system?

Medulla Oblongata

3

What system work with the respiratory system to maintain blood pH?

Urinary

4

The respiratory system maintains blood pH by controlling the level of what molecule?

CO2

5

Name the primary muscle of respiration

Diaphragm

6

What nerve intervals the diaphragm?

Phrenic nerve

7

Define Cyanoisis

A bluish color of the skin due to increased amounts of deoxygenated hemoglobin in the blood

8

Define Atelectasis

Collapsed or abnormal structure of the alveoli

9

What molecule helps break up water surface tension in the alveoli?

Surfactant

10

What type of cell makes surfactant?

Type II pneumocytes

11

External respiration is the exchange of gases between what?

Alveoli and the internal capillaries

12

Internal respiration is the exchange of gases between what?

Systemic capillaries and the tissue cells

13

Define glomerular filtration

Fluid in the blood is filtered across the capillaries of the glomerulus and into the urinary space of the Bowman's capsule; size - small passes through, holds back RBC, platelets, and proteins

14

Define Tubular secretion

Some substances that are not needed by the body are removed from the blood and discharged into the urine (blood urea nitrogen and creatinine)

15

Define Tubular reabsorption

Process that pulls materials from the tubular fluid and returns it to the blood stream (glucose, Na+, amino acids, and proteins) pull water and renal tubule to peritubular capillaries

16

As sodium goes, so goes ______

Water

17

When moving electrolytes between body fluids what must be maintained?

Electrolyte neutrality

18

How is the neutrality maintained?

# of cations - # of anions

19

How many nephrons are in one kidney?

1 X 10^8

20

What happens to the glomerular filtration rate when you increase the afferent arteriole radius?

It increases

21

If the afferent arteriole radius is .30 mm does blood flow through the nephron?

No

22

What is the glomerular filtration rate when the afferent arteriole radius is .30 mm?

0; there isn't enough pressure to push the fluid out of the arteriole

23

What happens to the glomerular filtration rate when you increase the efferent arteriole radius?

It decreases

24

What happens to the glomerular filtration rate when you decrease the efferent radius?

It increases

25

As pressure increases what happens to the pressure in the glomerulus?

It increases

26

What happens to the glomerular filtration rate as you increase pressure?

It increases

27

What happens to the urine volume as you increase the pressure?

It increases

28

When the glomerular filtration rate is zero what is the kidney function?

Kidney failure (<15 ml/min)

29

What is the major substance that needs to be removed form the blood?

Blood urea nitrogen

30

CO2 + H2O --> H2CO3 --> H+ + HCO3-

High H+ = low pH (acidic) Low H+ = high pH (alkaline)

31

Anatomically describe the location of the GI tract

Long lumen going from the mouth to the anus

32

What structures make up the GI tract?

Mouth -> pharynx -> esophagus -> stomach -> duodenum -> jejunum -> ilium -> ilial secal valve -> secum -> ascending colon -> transverse colon -> descending colon -> sigmoid colon -> rectum -> anus

33

What process occurs in the mouth?

Chewing (mechanical) and salivation (chemical) - amylase

34

What process occurs in the esophagus?

Moving of bolus (mechanical)

35

What process occurs in the stomach?

Curing of food (mechanical) and breaking down of food with HCl and pepsin (chemical)

36

What process occurs in the duodenum?

Enzymes (bicarbonate) from pancreas are added in to further break down food (chemical), bile from the liver/gallbladder breaks down fat (chemical), and mixing, moving, and migration of chyme (mechanical)

37

What process occurs in the jejunum/ilium?

Absorption of nutrients taken to vein and liver filters it (hepatic portal vein)

38

What process occurs in the large intestine?

Forming stool due to reabsorption of water

39

What process occurs in the rectum?

Packed down

40

What process occurs in the anus?

Internal sphincter is automatic and triggers external sphincter which is voluntary

41

Where is mucus secreted?

From the stomach to the anus

42

Two diseases classified as inflammatory bowel diseases

Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis

43

Crohn's disease is an inflammation of which layers of the intestinal wall?

Transmural (goes all the way through) mucosa, submucosa, and external - effects any part usually the bowels - proximal end (ilium)

44

Ulcerative colitis is an inflammation of what?

Mucosa of rectum and colon (distal end)

45

List 2 rare complications of Ulcerative colitis?

Acute hemorrhage and Toxic mega colon

46

List the symptoms of Crohn's disease

Stomach cramp, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and fever

47

What is a possible complication of Crohn's disease?

Stenosis and fistuals

48

List the classic symptoms of Ulcerative Colitis

Chronic diarrhea and blood in stool

49

What tests are used to further diagnose inflammatory bowel disease?

Ultrasound, endoscopy, x-rays, and surgery

50

List 3 methods for treating inflammatory bowel disease

Steroids, surgery, and nutritional therapy

51

What are the dietary recommendations for patients with inflammatory bowel disease?

Gentle fiber and eating foods with maximum nutritional value