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Flashcards in exam 7 Deck (38):
1

what makes new ideas dangerous to propose?

human envy

2

Machiavelli’s mimetic desire to be a public benefactor

spurred on by an instinctive [natural or mimetic] desire I have always had to do those things that I believe will further the common good and benefit everybody, I have refused to be intimidated

3

history books

people do not understand them. if they read them they do not understand them

4

first degree of happiness

a great lawgiver

5

what it takes to reform a corrupt polity

something has to happen that takes them back to their first principles.

6

why disdain for religion is a source of ruin

kingdoms that depend solely on the virtue of one god-like man are hardly durable, because that virtue fails with the life of that one

7

what Machiavelli’s praise of the old means

Mansfield claims it is actually praise of the young. spurred on by an instinctive [natural or mimetic] desire I have always had to do those things that I believe will further the common good and benefit everybody, I have refused to be intimidated

8

what makes cities great ?

common good

9

what are people quicker to do?

criticize rather than praise

10

respect in which we hold antiquity

basically is like mimetic desire

11

founding of Rome: Aeneas(foreigner) vs. Romulus(native)

But in both versions “Rome had a free beginning, without depending on anyone.” The strict laws imposed by Romulus and Numa were so effective that the fertility of the soil, Rome’s proximity to the sea, its frequent victories, and the greatness of its empire “could not corrupt it for many centuries, and that full of as much virtue as has ever adorned any city or republic

12

Lycurgus vs. Solon

He contrasts the wisdom of Sparta’s Lycurgus with Solon’s failure to temper the power of the people.

13

role of compulsion in making men act right

Men act right only upon compulsion; but from the moment they have the option and liberty to commit wrong with impunity, then they never fail to carry confusion and disorder everywhere

14

why enduring order requires one lawgiver

becuse it is the first degree of happiness

15

why rulers have recourse to God

As the observance of the divine cult is the cause of the greatness of republics, so disdain for it is the cause of their ruin. . . . Kingdoms that depend solely on the virtue of one [god-like] man are hardly durable, be-cause that virtue fails with the life of that one.

16

what accounts for nostalgia

1) “We never know the whole truth about the past, and very frequently writers conceal such events as would reflect disgrace upon their century, whilst they magnify and amplify those that lend lustre to it.” 2) “Men’s hatreds generally spring from fear or envy,” but “these two powerful reasons for hatred do not exist for us with regard to the past, for [the past] cannot hurt you or give you cause for envy.”

17

why blaming the present is always right

it “is always necessary to prog-ress, because progress is not guaranteed by insatiable appetites that can be frustrated by bad fortune or false opinion (not to mention heaven).”

18

the importance of free government

for experience shows that cities have never enlarged their dominion nor increased their wealth except while they have existed in freedom.

19

why blaming the present is always right

it “is always necessary to progress because progress is not guaranteed by insatiable appetites that can be frustrated by bad fortune or false opinion (not to mention heaven).”

20

why it is important to bring bodies back to their founding principles

corruption inevitably destroys the organization

21

why it is important to arm the citizenry

so that citizens in private and public have occasion to experience both the extent of their own strength and the power of fortune.

22

second degree of happiness

disunion between the senate and the people yielded her a second degree of happiness

23

Luther’s 3 contributions to political thought

1. Luther knew that to understand the state or temporal authority one must recognize the reality of power and one must see that power’s chief justification is found in securing order and peace
2. understanding political millenarianism [Utopian].
3. is in the relation between politics and ideology

24

doctrine of the two kingdoms

kingdom of God-for believers, kingdom of the world

25

two key attributes of political millenarianism

their appeal is to immanentize the kingdom of God and thus abolish the distinction be-tween the two kingdoms, and they use power to compel the conscience or the inner man in order to serve spiritual perfection.

26

two parts of the whole Scripture of God

precepts and promises

27

what Christ frees us from?

from false opinions about works

28

the two purposes of the law

1. if pressed by the temporal power, they have affirmed and maintained that the temporal power has no jurisdiction over them, but, on the contrary, that the spiritual power is above the temporal.
2. if it were proposed to admonish them with the Scriptures, they objected that
no one may interpret the Scriptures but the Pope.
3. if they are threatened with a council, they pretend that no one may call a council but the Pope.

29

Three purposes and parts of Christian liberty

1. consciences of believers, while seeking the assurance of their justification before, God must rise above the law, and think no more of obtaining justification by it.
2. another point which depends on the former is, that consciences obey the law, not as if compelled by legal necessity; but being free from the yoke of the law itself, voluntarily obey the will of God
3. we are not bound before god to any observance of external things which are in themselves indifferent

30

what is the end of the commandment?

charity, out of a pure heart, and of a good conscience and of faith unfeigned

31

The object (purposes) of civil Government

no idolatry, no blasphemy against the name of God, no calumnies against his truth, nor other offences to religion, break out and be disseminated among the people; that the public quiet be not disturbed, that every
man's property be kept secure, that men may carry on innocent commerce with each other, that honesty and modesty be cultivat-ed; in short, that a public form of religion may exist among Christians, and humanity among men

32

Three branches of government

the magistrate-president and guardian of the laws; the laws-according to which he governs; the people- who are governed by the laws, and obey the magistrate

33

Civil magistracy: an honorable profession

functions were expressly approved by the lord. thus civil authority is sacred and lawful and most honourable

34

The object (purposes) of civil Government

no idolatry, no blasphemy against the name of God, no calumnies against his truth, nor other offences to religion, break out and be disseminated among the people; that the public quiet be not disturbed, that every
man's property be kept secure, that men may carry on innocent commerce with each other, that honesty and modesty be cultivated; in short, that a public form of religion may exist among Christians, and humanity among men

35

God may raise up His own avengers

from his owns servants, and gives them his command to punish accursed tyranny, and deliver his people from calamity when they are unjustly oppressed

36

what is job of lesser magistrates?

constitutional duty to check the tyrannical kings

37

what rulers are we subject to?

rulers in the Lord

38

who's duty is it to intervene on behalf of the oppressed?

lesser magistrates