Exam 8 Flashcards Preview

Pathophysiology Lab > Exam 8 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 8 Deck (48):
1

What are the two major groups of the skeletal system?

Axial (skull, spine, sternum) and Appendicular (shoulder to the toes)

2

Define Osteoblasts

Cells that build bone up by taking Ca2+ from the blood (stimulated via Calcitonin)

3

Define Osteoclasts

Cells that break down/demineralize bones to put more Ca2+ into the blood (stimulated via Parathyroid hormone)

4

Define Osteocytes

Cells housed in the bone matrix (lacunae) that maintain the structure of the bone

5

What are the major components of bone?

Collagen used from strength and ions like, Ca2+, Mg2+, and PO4 which makes hydroxyl appetite and mixes with the collagen to make hard strong bone

6

Name the 3 types of muscle

Skeletal, smooth, and cardiac

7

List characteristics of skeletal muscle

Voluntary control, striated, and used for movement of bones

8

List characteristics of smooth muscle

Involuntary control, used in the digestive tract, as well as arteries and bronchioles to constrict and release

9

List characteristics of cardiac muscle

Involuntary control (pumps the heart), branched morphology, communicates via gap junctions

10

Open fracture

Bone protrudes out of the skin

11

Closed fracture

Bone doesn't go through the skin

12

Comminuted fracture

Bone breaks into multiple pieces; shattered

13

Linear fracture

Break is along the axis of the bone

14

Oblique fracture

Break is diagonal; not parallel or at 90 degrees

15

Spiral fracture

Break goes around the bone due to a twisting motion

16

Transverse fracture

Break at 90 degrees

17

Greenstick fracture

Break doesn't go all the way though the bone - occurs in kids due to flexible bones

18

Transchondral fracture

Breaks through the growth plate

19

Colles' fracture

Distal radius is broken - usually from catching yourself with your hands when falling

20

Pott's fracture

Distal tibia/fibula break around the ankle

21

Bennett's fracture

Break of metacarpal 1 (thumb) - usually due to punching a wall

22

Boxer's fracture

Break of the 5th, sometimes 4th metacarpals

23

Define Osteoporosis

Porous bones due to loss of bone tissuse

24

What three areas of the skeleton are weaker by osteoporosis?

Hips, spine, and wrist

25

At what age does bone resorption begin to exceed bone formation?

30 to 35

26

List four functions of bone

Structure, movement, Ca2+ reservoir, and protection of vital organs

27

What tool is used to detect bone density with 1% accuracy?

Bone densitometer

28

What 5 genetic conditions affect osteoporosis?

Gender (F), age (old), hormones (estrogen and progesterone), size of bones, and race

29

What lifestyle changes can affect environmental risk factors for osteoporosis?

Diet (Ca2+ and Vitamin D), exercise, decrease diuretics (alcohol and caffeine)

30

Meiosis vs. Mitosis

?

31

Describe the components of the male reproductive system

Scrotum - holds the testes (sperm production), epididymis (matures sperm), vas deferens, bladder, seminal vesicles, urethra, prostate gland, and out the body

32

Describe the components of the female reproductive system

Ovaries (release egg), fimbriae, fallopian tubes (fertilization occurs), uterus, internal and external os, cervix, vagina, vulvular area

33

Explain the female reproductive system and the hormones involved

Anterior pituitary -> blood -> ovaries -> FSH - gets the egg ready to release and makes estrogen

Anterior pituitary -> blood -> ovaries -> LH - releases egg out of the ovary and stimulates ovulation -> forms corpus luteum which makes estrogen and progesterone

34

Primary dysmenorrhea

Excessive female prostaglandin release

35

PID

Infection of upper genital tract by STD

36

Spermatocele

Cyst between epididymis and testis

37

Vaginitis, cervicitis, urethritis, vulvitis

Female inflammatory conditions caused by STD

38

Testicular cancers

Carcinoma with high levels of androgens

39

Hydrocele

Fluid causes scrotal swelling

40

Peyronie

Fibrous penile plaques

41

PCOS

Many cysts on enlarged ovaries

42

Orchitis

Possible complication of the mumps

43

Varicocele

Spermatic cord vein inflammation

44

Prostatic hyperplasia

Compressing causes bladder obstruction

45

Fibrocystic breast disease

Palpable lumps in the breast

46

Phimosis

Penile foreskin too tight over the glans penis

47

Endometriosis

Linked to cytotoxic T cell suppression

48

Secondary amenorrhea

Stop of menstruation for 3 or more cycles