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What are the five benefits of a warm up?

-Gradually increasing body and muscle tempeture
-Increase blood and oxygen supply
-Increase flexibility
-increase excitement levels
-increased proprioception


What are the four benefits of a cool down?

-return heart rate, breathing and blood pressure to normal
-restoration of range of motion and flexibility
-removal of waste product from muscle tissue
- reduction of induced muscle spasm


What is the preferred timing and duration of warm ups or cool downs?

Warm ups should be about 10-15 minutes
Cool downs should be about 5-10 minutes


What are the three components of a warm up and what do they include?

C1- a LOW INTENSITY rhythmic activity the increase body temperature and heart rate.
eg. jog, cycling, skipping or pumping
C2- STRECHING to increase flexibility and range of movement.
eg. static, dynamic, PNF
C2- SPORTS SPECIFIC game or activity where athletes perform movements to be used during the session.


What are the three different types of stretching and what do they include?

STATIC - holding a challenging position for 10-30 seconds. Repeated 2-3 times
DYNAMIC- gradually increasing speed and range of movement. performed in sets of 8-20n repitions
PNF- Contracting and relaxing muscles again a resistance. Held for 10-15 seconds, relaxed for 2-3 seconds. THE LAST STRETCH SHOULD BE HELD FOR 20 SECONDS,


What are the components of a cool down and what do they include?

ACTIVE- keep the body moving after main act. at a lower intensity than warm up. It stops blood from pooling in the muscles and blood to return to the heart. and remove latic acid from muscles

PASSIVE- the streching component of the cool down. assists in preventing muscle soreness. lower intensity than warm up.
allows participant to mentally recover form main act.


What are the benefits of recovery techniques?

-Help an athlete get back into trainning
-Minimal discomfort (DOMS)
- remove waste products
-restore range of motion


Name the recovery techniques and how are they performed?

ICE BATHS- to prevent muscle soreness from small muscle tears (mircotrauma). Which can delay an athletes recovery & effect ability to performance.
HOT AND COLD SHOWERS- cold shower for 2 minutes, cold for 30 seconds. This should be repeated 3-4 times. This is the method vasodilation & vasocostriction.
REFUELLING AND HYDRATION- Should occur as soon as possible. An athlete should consume 1 gram of carbs for every kilogram of body weight.


What are contraindications?

Anything that may stop or interfere with an athletes ability to complete the warm up. eg Haematoma, fractures, strains, sprains


What injuries does a GP treat?

most injures and conditions, emergency situations


What injuries does a Chiropractor treat?

Skeletal system. spinal & joint alignment, back, neck and joint pain


What injuries does a Physiotherapists treat

muscolosketal conditions, recovery from stroke or spinal injuries (neurological)


What injuries does a Osteopaths treat?

soft tissue and general muscosketal injuries including muscles, ligament and tendons. they use their hands to reduce pain and increase movement.


What injuries does a Massage therapist treat?

uses hands, series of strokes and kneading techniques to bring oxygen and nutrients to tissue in the body.


What injuries does a Rehabilitation therapist treat?

Assist in restoring function or adapting a new way of function after injury.


Name and describe the 5 organisational polices and procedures.

WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY- requires by law to ensure the safety of themselves and others around them.Minimise harm.
CONFIDENTIALITY- its confidential, no details of a persons personal infomation or medical history should be shared with another person, unless consented
CODE OF ETHICS- the set of values or standards under which an organisation or employee works.
CODE OF CONDUCT- set of rules or organisational policy which are expected to follow.
SPORTS TRAINER ASSOCIATED GUIDELINES- regulations and guidelines, best practice principles


Why are organisational polices and procedures in place?

To protect both the instructor and the athletes from potential hazards, injury and confidentiality issues


What is best practice?

A method, procedure, process or technique of doing something most likely to achieve the desired outcome. The 'best' way to do something.


what is biomechanics?

The law that relates to how the human body moves.


Define Centre of Gravity.

The point at which all parts of an object are balanced.


Define Base of support.

The area of an object or person that is in contact with the ground.


Why does centre of gravity need to be considered when conducting a warm up ?

So that the COG can be lowered increasing balanced. an exercise that can increase COG is sumo squats.


Why does the base of support need to be considered when conducting a warm up?

So that the bos can be widened


Define levers?

A ridgrid structure that is capable of transmitting or exerting a force.


What is a first class lever?

A fulcrum between the effort and load.
eg. seesaw, scissors


What is a second class?

have a load between fulcrum and effort.
eg. push up position


What is a third class lever?

have the effort between the fulcrum and load
eg. broom, bicep curl


Define fulcrums.

the fixed point at which a lever rotates or pivots.
eg. joint is a lever


Define and explain major muscle actions.

any force applied to a lever called the effort.
ORGIN- stationary end of muscle movement
INSERTION- mobile end of muscle attachment
AGONIST- (prime mover), contracting muscles
ANTAGONIST- relaxing muscle


Name techniques for increasing arousal.

-postive encouragemnet
-inspiration (vid, music)