Flashcards in Exam 9: Hallucinogens, Phencyclidine, and Ketamine Deck (25):
Name 4 Indoles
Lysergic acid Diethylamide (LSD)
Name 2 phenylethylamides
What sympathomimetic effects are caused by LSD/hallucinogens in the initial stage?
What are some somatic effects of LSD/hallucinogens in the initial stage?
What are some subjective psychic changes with LSD/hallucinogens in the initial stage?
You feel pleasant in the initial stage
What is seen in the hallucinogenic phase of LSD?
Depersonalization (out of body)
Difficulty determining what's real and what isn't
Panic reactions are common (sure they are...)
How can you treat a person having a bad trip?
Placing them in a place with low sensory input
What are Psilocin and psilocybin?
Hallucinogenic substances seen in mushrooms (effects are like LSD)
What drug is taken by "toad licking"?
What is Bufotenin?
Hallucinogen seen in mushrooms and some amphibians (toad licking)
Where do you find Mescaline?
What are the effects of Mescaline?
Like LSD, but the autonomic changes are less pronounced
What are effects of MDMA?
Stimulant and hallucinogenic
What hallucinogen is found in the roots of an African shrub?
What is a controversial use for Ibogaine?
Powerful hallucinogen that has recently been reported to suppress the craving for heroin cocaine and other drugs in addicted individuals.
Describe tolerance/dependence on hallucinogens?
Tolerance is common
Cross tolerance between different drugs occurs
Physical dependence isn't a big issue
What is hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD)?
Hallucinogen-associated long term changes in processing of visual information.
Involved in flashbacks
What is the most widely accepted mechanism of action of hallucinogens?
Agonists at presynaptic 5-HT2 receptors and thereby decrease the rate of firing of 5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus, which leads to alterations in the functioning the reticular sensory filtering system
Also may effect dopamine and the enkephalins
What does PCP do at low doses?
What does PCP do at high doses?
Amphetamine-like stimulant effects, including irritability and hostility
What can happen with high doses of PCP?
Hallucinations, psychosis, and rage
They may get super strong and be impervious to pain.
What is the mechanism of PCP?
Blockade of NMDA receptors
What are 4 physical symptoms of PCP toxicity?
Hyperreflexia, increased muscle tone, hypertension, and vertical nystagmus
What is a unique physical sign of PCP toxicity that is useful in diagnosis?