Exam 9: Hallucinogens, Phencyclidine, and Ketamine Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > Exam 9: Hallucinogens, Phencyclidine, and Ketamine > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 9: Hallucinogens, Phencyclidine, and Ketamine Deck (25):
1

Name 4 Indoles

Lysergic acid Diethylamide (LSD)
Psilocybin/Psilocin
Butotenin
Ibogaine

2

Name 2 phenylethylamides

Mescaline
Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)

3

What sympathomimetic effects are caused by LSD/hallucinogens in the initial stage?

Mydriasis
BP increase
Tachycardia
Piloerection
Hyperreflexia
tremors
Increased temp

4

What are some somatic effects of LSD/hallucinogens in the initial stage?

dizziness
weakness
paresthesias
nausea

5

What are some subjective psychic changes with LSD/hallucinogens in the initial stage?

Anxiety
Euphoria/giddiness
emotional lability
You feel pleasant in the initial stage

6

What is seen in the hallucinogenic phase of LSD?

Sensory disturbances
Depersonalization (out of body)
Difficulty determining what's real and what isn't
Panic reactions are common (sure they are...)

7

How can you treat a person having a bad trip?

Reassurance
Placing them in a place with low sensory input

8

What are Psilocin and psilocybin?

Hallucinogenic substances seen in mushrooms (effects are like LSD)

9

What drug is taken by "toad licking"?

Bufotenin

10

What is Bufotenin?

Hallucinogen seen in mushrooms and some amphibians (toad licking)

11

Where do you find Mescaline?

Peyote cactus

12

What are the effects of Mescaline?

Like LSD, but the autonomic changes are less pronounced

13

What are effects of MDMA?

Stimulant and hallucinogenic

14

What hallucinogen is found in the roots of an African shrub?

Ibogaine

15

What is a controversial use for Ibogaine?

Powerful hallucinogen that has recently been reported to suppress the craving for heroin cocaine and other drugs in addicted individuals.

16

Describe tolerance/dependence on hallucinogens?

Tolerance is common
Cross tolerance between different drugs occurs
Physical dependence isn't a big issue

17

What is hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD)?

Hallucinogen-associated long term changes in processing of visual information.
Involved in flashbacks

18

What is the most widely accepted mechanism of action of hallucinogens?

Agonists at presynaptic 5-HT2 receptors and thereby decrease the rate of firing of 5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus, which leads to alterations in the functioning the reticular sensory filtering system
Also may effect dopamine and the enkephalins

19

What does PCP do at low doses?

Marijuana-like effects

20

What does PCP do at high doses?

Amphetamine-like stimulant effects, including irritability and hostility

21

What can happen with high doses of PCP?

Hallucinations, psychosis, and rage
They may get super strong and be impervious to pain.

22

What is the mechanism of PCP?

Blockade of NMDA receptors

23

What are 4 physical symptoms of PCP toxicity?

Hyperreflexia, increased muscle tone, hypertension, and vertical nystagmus

24

What is a unique physical sign of PCP toxicity that is useful in diagnosis?

Vertical nystagmus

25

What is a hazard associated with long term use of PCP?

Psychosis and cognitive impairment