Flashcards in Exam - Chapter 7&8 Deck (128):
point of shoulder
head of femur fits here held by muscles and ligaments
also known as collar bone, most fractured bone in body
arm bone on thumb side
arm bone on pinky side
What bone articulates with the humerus?
ulna, at the olecranon process/fossa
Number of bones of ribs in order
7 true ribs, 3 false ribs, 2 floating ribs
What type of cartilage is in the ribs
Hyaline (costal or costalchondral) cartilage
muscle attaches here for movement of shoulder, sticks outward anteriorly
point of shoulder, sticks up!
What does the proximal end of the clavicle articulate with?
Manubrium of the sternum
Why are false ribs false?
They do not attach to the sternum, they attach to rib 7
Where is the detoid tuberosity located?
midway up the humerus, where muscle attaches
proximal end of humerus attaches here to scapula
Supraspinous/infraspinous fossa are located above/below which part of scapula?
Spine of scapula
What type of cartilage is the head of the humerus made of?
What are the three parts of the sternum?
Manubrium, body, xiphoid process
Where does the posterior portion of the shaft of the rib (tubercle) attach to on vertebra?
Some lovers try positions that they cannot handle. From what angle is this relevant?
Scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate; back of hand, fingers facing upwards
Pisiform is closest to which finger
5 for each finger in the hand, long bones of hand
What number metacarpal is thumb?
contains proximal, medial, and distal, except for thumb
bone of the upper arm, lower arm, upper leg, lower leg
bones of the talus and carpus
bones of the ribs scapulae, some bones of the skull
bone of the patella; small and round
shaft of the long bone
ends of long bone
articulates with the femur ONLY; medial!
attaches to indercondylar fossa of femur flat-like plateau
bumps on top of the tibia
medial and later condyles
bump on the anterior portion of tibia where muscles and ligaments attach
bump on inside of ankle off of the tibia
smaller of the lower leg bone; articulates with tibia, does not articulate with femur
part of the fibula that fits into tibia
head of fibula
bump on outside of ankle on fibula
bone of the foot that articulates with the tibia
also known as tarsus; irregular bones; help make up ankle joint
ankle bones of tarsus
cuboid, navicular, lateral cuniform, intermediate cuniform, medial cuniform (big toe)
the widening part of the bone between the diaphysis and epiphysis
tough, vascular covering of dense connective tissue around bone
cortical bone; wall of diaphysis composed of tightly packed tissue, contains no gaps, has lamellae
on the epiphyses, callcaneous bone that consists of many branching bony plates called trabeculae
within compact bone, a cylinder-shaped unit that function as pillars resisting compression; contains a central canal for blood vessels and nerves
building up bone cells
develop from bases of hyaline cartilage chapter like future bony structures; most bones are these
considered to be flat bones of the skull, clavicles, sternum, mandible, maxillae, and zygomatic bones
a break in the bone
break that does not fracture the skin
closed (simple) fracture
broken bone penetrates through the skin
open (compound) fracture
frays; had to repair, breaks like a green twig
refigure the bone the way nature wanted it to be
sheet-like layers of embryonic connective tissue; gives rise to periosteum
bone cells; contained within bony chambers called lacunae
creation of endochondral bones
part of endochondral ossification; appears in the diaphysis
primary ossification center
part of endochondral ossification; appears in the epiphyses
secondary ossification centers
responsible for bone lengthening; remains between the primary and secondary ossification sites
bone-destroying cells; break down bone matrix for remodeling and release calcium from bone and put it into circulation
cycle where osteoclasts resorb (break down) bone and osteoblasts replace the bone
supports and protects organs of head, neck, and trunk
How many cranial bones are there?
8 (frontal, 2 parietal, occipital, 2 temporal, sphenoid, ethmoid)
How many facial bones are there and what are they?
2 maxilla, 2 palatine, 2 zygomatic, 2 lacrimal, 2 nasal, vomer, 2 inferior nasal concha, mandible = 14
A rounded process that usually articulates with another bone
A narrow, ridge like projection
A projection situated above a condyle; usually facing towards sides
A small, nearly flat surface
A cleft or groove
A soft spot in the skull where membranes cover the space between bones
An opening through a bone that usually serves as a passageway for blood vessels, nerves, or ligaments
A relatively deep pit or depression
A tiny pit or depression
An enlargement on the end of a bone
A tubelike passageway within a bone
A prominent projection on a bone
A thorn like projection
An interlocking unit between bones
A relatively large process
A small, knob like process
A knoblike process usually larger than a tubercle
articulating bones fastened together by a thin layer of dense connective tissue containing many collagen fibers
joints that have no appreciable movement
bones bound by interosseous ligament; joints is flexible and may be twisted; has bones bound by long connective tissue; ex. tibia and fibula articulation
flat bones are united by a thin layer of connective tissue and are interlocked by a set of bony processes; only of the skull; immovable
a joint formed by the union of a cone-shaped bony process with a bony socket; tooth; synarthrotic joint
articulating bones connected by hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage
joints that are slightly movable
occurs where articular surfaces of the bones are united by hyaline cartilage that may and usually disappears as a result of bone growth; synarthrotic joint; joint between the first rib and the manubrium
articular surfaces of bones are covered by hyaline cartilage and the bones are connected by a pad of fibrocartilage; amphiarthrotic joint; ______ pubis
joints that are movable
articulating ends of bones surrounded by a joint capsule; articular bone ends covered by hyaline cartilage and separated by synovial fluid; diarthrotic
covers articular ends of bones in a synovial joint resists wear and minimizes friction when it compresses as the joint moves
part of synovial joint; strengthened by ligaments and holds bones together; has two separate layers being the outer fibrous layer and the synovial membrane
secretes synovial fluid and lines the inner layer of a joint capsule
it moistens, provides nutrients, and lubricates the articular surfaces
fluid-filled sacs that contain synovial fluid and most are located between the skin and underlying bony prominences; cushion and aid movements of tendons over body parts
also known as a spheroidal joint; the globular head of a bone fits into the cup-shaped cavity of another bone; permits a wide variety of movements (multi axial)
ball and socket joint
Where are ball and socket joints located?
hip and shoulder
also known as the ellipsoidal joint; it consists of a ovoid condyle of one bone fitting into the elliptical cavity of another bone; it permits movement in two planes (biaxial)
Where are condylar joints located?
Metacarpals and phalanges
also known as gliding joints; articulating surfaces are nearly flat or slightly curved (non axial); slide back and forth
Where are plane joints located?
wrist and ankle bones
convex surface of one bone articulates with concave surface of another; uniaxial
Where are hinge joints located?
elbow and joints of phalanges
cylindrical surface of one bone articulates with ring of bone and ligament; uniaxial and rotation
Where is a pivot joint located?
Vertebrae & radius/ulna
articulating surfaces have both concave and convex regions; surface of one bone fits the complementary surface of another; biaxial
Where are saddle joints located?
between carpal and metacarpal of thumb
bending parts of a joint so that the angle between them decreases and the parts come closer together (bending the knee)
moving parts at a joint so that the angle between them increases and the parts move farther apart (straightening the knee)
movement at the ankle that brings the foot closer to the shin (rocking back on one's heels)
movement at the ankle that brings the foot farther from the shin (walking or standing on tipped-toes)
moving a part away from the midline (lifting the upper limb horizontally to form a right angle with the side of body) or from the axial line of the limb (spreading the fingers or toes)
moving a part towards the midline (returning the upper limb from the horizontal position to the side of the body) or toward the axial line of the limb (moving the fingers or toes closer together)
moving a part around an axis (twisting head from side to side)
internal; the turning of a limb on its longitudinal axis so its anterior surface moves toward the midline
external; turning of a limb on its longitudinal axis away from the midline
rotation of the forearm so the palm is upward or facing anteriorly (in anatomical position)
rotation of the forearm so the palm is downward or facing posteriorly (in anatomical position)
turning the foot so the plantar surface faces laterally
turning the foot so the plantar surface faces medially
moving a part forward (thrusting the head forward)
moving a part backwards (pulling the head backwards)
raising a part (shrugging the shoulders)