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Flashcards in Exam - Chapter 7&8 Deck (128):
1

point of shoulder

acromion process

2

head of femur fits here held by muscles and ligaments

acetabulum

3

also known as collar bone, most fractured bone in body

clavicle

4

arm bone on thumb side

radius

5

arm bone on pinky side

ulna

6

What bone articulates with the humerus?

ulna, at the olecranon process/fossa

7

Number of bones of ribs in order

7 true ribs, 3 false ribs, 2 floating ribs

8

What type of cartilage is in the ribs

Hyaline (costal or costalchondral) cartilage

9

Wings

scapulae

10

muscle attaches here for movement of shoulder, sticks outward anteriorly

coracoid process

11

point of shoulder, sticks up!

acromion process

12

What does the proximal end of the clavicle articulate with?

Manubrium of the sternum

13

Why are false ribs false?

They do not attach to the sternum, they attach to rib 7

14

Where is the detoid tuberosity located?

midway up the humerus, where muscle attaches

15

proximal end of humerus attaches here to scapula

glenoid cavity

16

Supraspinous/infraspinous fossa are located above/below which part of scapula?

Spine of scapula

17

What type of cartilage is the head of the humerus made of?

Hyaline cartilage

18

What are the three parts of the sternum?

Manubrium, body, xiphoid process

19

Where does the posterior portion of the shaft of the rib (tubercle) attach to on vertebra?

a facet

20

Some lovers try positions that they cannot handle. From what angle is this relevant?

Scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate; back of hand, fingers facing upwards

21

Pisiform is closest to which finger

Pinky!

22

5 for each finger in the hand, long bones of hand

metacarpals

23

What number metacarpal is thumb?

1!

24

contains proximal, medial, and distal, except for thumb

phalanges

25

bone of the upper arm, lower arm, upper leg, lower leg

long bones

26

bones of the talus and carpus

short bones

27

bones of the ribs scapulae, some bones of the skull

flat bones

28

vertebral bones

irregular bones

29

bone of the patella; small and round

sesamoid bone

30

shaft of the long bone

diaphysis

31

ends of long bone

epiphysis

32

articulates with the femur ONLY; medial!

tibia

33

attaches to indercondylar fossa of femur flat-like plateau

intercondylar eminence

34

bumps on top of the tibia

medial and later condyles

35

bump on the anterior portion of tibia where muscles and ligaments attach

tibial tuberosity

36

bump on inside of ankle off of the tibia

medial malleolus

37

smaller of the lower leg bone; articulates with tibia, does not articulate with femur

fibula

38

part of the fibula that fits into tibia

head of fibula

39

bump on outside of ankle on fibula

lateral malleolus

40

bone of the foot that articulates with the tibia

talus

41

also known as tarsus; irregular bones; help make up ankle joint

tarsals

42

ankle bones of tarsus

cuboid, navicular, lateral cuniform, intermediate cuniform, medial cuniform (big toe)

43

the widening part of the bone between the diaphysis and epiphysis

metaphysis

44

tough, vascular covering of dense connective tissue around bone

periosteum

45

cortical bone; wall of diaphysis composed of tightly packed tissue, contains no gaps, has lamellae

company bone

46

on the epiphyses, callcaneous bone that consists of many branching bony plates called trabeculae

spongy bone

47

within compact bone, a cylinder-shaped unit that function as pillars resisting compression; contains a central canal for blood vessels and nerves

osteon

48

building up bone cells

osteoblasts

49

develop from bases of hyaline cartilage chapter like future bony structures; most bones are these

endochondral bones

50

considered to be flat bones of the skull, clavicles, sternum, mandible, maxillae, and zygomatic bones

intramembranous bones

51

a break in the bone

bone fracture

52

break that does not fracture the skin

closed (simple) fracture

53

broken bone penetrates through the skin

open (compound) fracture

54

frays; had to repair, breaks like a green twig

greenstick

55

refigure the bone the way nature wanted it to be

reduction

56

sheet-like layers of embryonic connective tissue; gives rise to periosteum

mesenchyme

57

bone cells; contained within bony chambers called lacunae

osteocytes

58

creation of endochondral bones

endochondral ossification

59

part of endochondral ossification; appears in the diaphysis

primary ossification center

60

part of endochondral ossification; appears in the epiphyses

secondary ossification centers

61

responsible for bone lengthening; remains between the primary and secondary ossification sites

epiphyseal plate

62

bone-destroying cells; break down bone matrix for remodeling and release calcium from bone and put it into circulation

osteoclasts

63

cycle where osteoclasts resorb (break down) bone and osteoblasts replace the bone

bone remodeling

64

supports and protects organs of head, neck, and trunk

axial skeleton

65

How many cranial bones are there?

8 (frontal, 2 parietal, occipital, 2 temporal, sphenoid, ethmoid)

66

How many facial bones are there and what are they?

2 maxilla, 2 palatine, 2 zygomatic, 2 lacrimal, 2 nasal, vomer, 2 inferior nasal concha, mandible = 14

67

A rounded process that usually articulates with another bone

Console

68

A narrow, ridge like projection

Crest

69

A projection situated above a condyle; usually facing towards sides

Epicondyle

70

A small, nearly flat surface

Facet

71

A cleft or groove

Fissure

72

A soft spot in the skull where membranes cover the space between bones

Fontanels

73

An opening through a bone that usually serves as a passageway for blood vessels, nerves, or ligaments

For amen

74

A relatively deep pit or depression

Fossa

75

A tiny pit or depression

Fovea

76

An enlargement on the end of a bone

Head

77

A tubelike passageway within a bone

Meatus

78

A prominent projection on a bone

Process

79

A thorn like projection

Spine

80

An interlocking unit between bones

Suture

81

A relatively large process

Trochanter (femur)

82

A small, knob like process

Tubercle

83

A knoblike process usually larger than a tubercle

Tuberosity

84

articulating bones fastened together by a thin layer of dense connective tissue containing many collagen fibers

fibrous joints

85

joints that have no appreciable movement

synarthrotic joints

86

bones bound by interosseous ligament; joints is flexible and may be twisted; has bones bound by long connective tissue; ex. tibia and fibula articulation

syndesmois

87

flat bones are united by a thin layer of connective tissue and are interlocked by a set of bony processes; only of the skull; immovable

sutures

88

a joint formed by the union of a cone-shaped bony process with a bony socket; tooth; synarthrotic joint

gomphosis

89

articulating bones connected by hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage

cartilaginous joints

90

joints that are slightly movable

amphiarthrotic joints

91

occurs where articular surfaces of the bones are united by hyaline cartilage that may and usually disappears as a result of bone growth; synarthrotic joint; joint between the first rib and the manubrium

synchondrosis

92

articular surfaces of bones are covered by hyaline cartilage and the bones are connected by a pad of fibrocartilage; amphiarthrotic joint; ______ pubis

symphysis

93

joints that are movable

diarthrotic

94

articulating ends of bones surrounded by a joint capsule; articular bone ends covered by hyaline cartilage and separated by synovial fluid; diarthrotic

synovial joint

95

covers articular ends of bones in a synovial joint resists wear and minimizes friction when it compresses as the joint moves

articular cartilage

96

part of synovial joint; strengthened by ligaments and holds bones together; has two separate layers being the outer fibrous layer and the synovial membrane

joint capsule

97

secretes synovial fluid and lines the inner layer of a joint capsule

synovial membrane

98

it moistens, provides nutrients, and lubricates the articular surfaces

synovial fluid

99

fluid-filled sacs that contain synovial fluid and most are located between the skin and underlying bony prominences; cushion and aid movements of tendons over body parts

bursae

100

also known as a spheroidal joint; the globular head of a bone fits into the cup-shaped cavity of another bone; permits a wide variety of movements (multi axial)

ball and socket joint

101

Where are ball and socket joints located?

hip and shoulder

102

also known as the ellipsoidal joint; it consists of a ovoid condyle of one bone fitting into the elliptical cavity of another bone; it permits movement in two planes (biaxial)

condylar joint

103

Where are condylar joints located?

Metacarpals and phalanges

104

also known as gliding joints; articulating surfaces are nearly flat or slightly curved (non axial); slide back and forth

plane joints

105

Where are plane joints located?

wrist and ankle bones

106

convex surface of one bone articulates with concave surface of another; uniaxial

hinge joint

107

Where are hinge joints located?

elbow and joints of phalanges

108

cylindrical surface of one bone articulates with ring of bone and ligament; uniaxial and rotation

pivot joint

109

Where is a pivot joint located?

Vertebrae & radius/ulna

110

articulating surfaces have both concave and convex regions; surface of one bone fits the complementary surface of another; biaxial

saddle joint

111

Where are saddle joints located?

between carpal and metacarpal of thumb

112

bending parts of a joint so that the angle between them decreases and the parts come closer together (bending the knee)

flexion

113

moving parts at a joint so that the angle between them increases and the parts move farther apart (straightening the knee)

extension

114

movement at the ankle that brings the foot closer to the shin (rocking back on one's heels)

dorsiflexion

115

movement at the ankle that brings the foot farther from the shin (walking or standing on tipped-toes)

plantar flexion

116

moving a part away from the midline (lifting the upper limb horizontally to form a right angle with the side of body) or from the axial line of the limb (spreading the fingers or toes)

abduction

117

moving a part towards the midline (returning the upper limb from the horizontal position to the side of the body) or toward the axial line of the limb (moving the fingers or toes closer together)

adduction

118

moving a part around an axis (twisting head from side to side)

rotation

119

internal; the turning of a limb on its longitudinal axis so its anterior surface moves toward the midline

medial rotation

120

external; turning of a limb on its longitudinal axis away from the midline

lateral rotation

121

rotation of the forearm so the palm is upward or facing anteriorly (in anatomical position)

supination

122

rotation of the forearm so the palm is downward or facing posteriorly (in anatomical position)

pronation

123

turning the foot so the plantar surface faces laterally

eversion

124

turning the foot so the plantar surface faces medially

inversion

125

moving a part forward (thrusting the head forward)

protraction

126

moving a part backwards (pulling the head backwards)

retraction

127

raising a part (shrugging the shoulders)

elevation

128

lowering a part (drooping the shoulders)

depression