Exam I Terms/Definitions Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > Exam I Terms/Definitions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam I Terms/Definitions Deck (38):
1

Pharmacology

The study of drugs and their interactions with the human body

2

Drug

Any chemical agent that affects a living protoplasm

3

Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR)

Any response to a drug which is harmful and unintended

4

Pharmacokinetics

The action of body on the drug

ADME - Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination

5

Absorption

Movement of a drug from its site of administration into the central compartment (systemic system) and extent to which this occurs

6

Bioavailability

Measure of the amount of drug that is BIO AVAILABLE --> i.e., available to exert a systemic effect on the body

In other words:
The fractional extent to which a dose of drug reaches site of action

7

Cp max

Maximum concentration

8

T max (hrs)

Time to achieve maximum concentration after administration

9

Distribution

Following absorption (or systemic administration into bloodstream) when a drug distributes into interstitial and intracellular fluids

10

Volume of Distribution (Vd)

To account for observed initial drug concentrations following drug administration, researchers calculate an "apparent" volume

This is NOT a true physiologic volume

11

Biotransformation

Drug is chemically altered to form a metabolite that is more "excretable" than parent drug

12

Excretion

Removal of a drug or metabolite from the body via an organ

13

Drug Clearance

The volume of blood that is cleared of drug per time

14

Elimination/Drug Half-Life

The time it takes for the concentration of drug to reduce by 50%

15

Pharmacodynamics

Effects of drug on the body

(In vitro and in vivo)

16

Receptor

A molecule to which a drug binds to bring about a change in function of the biological system

17

Receptor Site

Specific region of receptor molecule to which the drug binds

18

Inert Binding Molecule or Site

A molecule to which a drug may bind without changing any function

19

Spare receptor

Receptor that does not bind drug when drug concentration is sufficient to produce maximal effect

This is present when Kd > EC50

20

Effector

Component that accomplishes the biologic effect and the receptor is activated by an agonist

examples:
- Channel
- enzyme molecule

21

Efficacy, maximal efficacy (E max)

The maximum effect that can be achieved with a particular drug, REGARDLESS OF DOSE

22

Potency

The amount of drug needed to produce a given effect, determined mainly by the affinity of the receptor for the drug and the number of receptors available

23

Graded dose-response curve

A graph of increasing response to increasing drug concentration or dose

24

Quantal dose-response curve

A graph of the fraction of a population that shows a specific response at progressively increasing doses

25

EC 50

The CONCENTRATION that causes 50% of the maximum effect or toxicity

26

ED 50

The DOSE that causes 50% of the maximum effect or toxicity

27

TD 50 (or TC 50)

The median toxic Dose (Concentration), the dose (concentration) at which toxicity occurs in 50% of cases

28

LD 50 (LC 50)

The median lethal dose (concentration)

The dose (concentration) required to kill half the members of a tested population after a specific test duration

29

Kd

The concentration of drug that binds 50% of the receptors in the system

30

B max

Maximal number of receptors bound

31

Partial agonist

A drug that binds to its receptor but produces a smaller effect at full dosage than a full agonist

32

Allosteric Agonist

A drug that binds to its receptor molecule without interfering with normal agonist binding BUT alters the response to the normal agonist

33

Competitive antagonist

A pharmacologic antagonist that can be overcome by increasing the concentration of agonist

34

Irreversible antagonist

A pharmacologic antagonist that cannot be overcome by increasing agonist concentration

35

Physiologic antagonist

A drug that counters effects of another by binding to a different receptor and causing opposing effects

36

Chemical antagonist

A drug that counters effects of another by binding the agonist drug (not the receptor)

37

Allosteric antagonist

A drug that binds to a receptor molecule without interfering with normal agonist binding BUT alters the response to the normal agonist

38

Therapeutic Index (TI)

TD 50 : ED 50