Flashcards in Exam II Study Questions Deck (345)
What is the name of the first cervical vertebra?
What features are lacking at C1?
vertebral body, pedicles, a spinous process and the intervertebral disc
What is thought to represent the pedicle at C1?
the anterior arch
What muscle attaches to the anterior arch of C1?
What ligaments will attach to the anterior arch of C1?
the anterior longitudinal, anterior atlanto-occipital and anterior atlanto-axial ligaments
What is observed on the back of the anterior arch of C1?
the fovea dentis
What joint classifications are observed on the anterior arch of C1?
fibrous (ampiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint and synovial pivot (diarthrosis trochoid) joint
What is the morphology of the superior articular facet of C1?
they are elliptical, closer together in front and often demonstrate an elevation subdividing the facet surface into two separate surfaces
What is the orientation of the superior articular facet of C1?
backward, upward, medial (BUM)
What is the joint classification of the atlanto-occipital zygapophysis?
synovial (diarthrosis) ellipsoidal joint
What are the morphological characteristic of the inferior articular facet of C1?
asymmetrical, slightly concave or flattened
What is the orientation of the inferior articular facet of C1?
backward, medial, downward (BMD)
What is the joint classification of the atlanto-axial zygapophysis?
synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia) joint
What muscles attach to the lateral mass of C1?
levator scapular, splenius cervicis and rectus capitis anterior
What part of C1 represents the spinous process?
posterior tubercle of the posterior arch
What is the distance from the posterior tubercle of the posterior arch to the skin in each gender?
males: about fifty millimeters; females: about thirty-seven millimeters
What attaches to the posterior tubercle of the posterior arch of C1?
rectus capitis posterior minor muscle and ligamentum nuchae
What superior surface modifications of the posterior arch of C1 are present?
groove/suclus for the vertebral artery and arcuate rim
What attaches to the arcuate rim of C1?
the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament
What are the attachment sites of the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament?
it is attached to the arcuate rim of the posterior arch of atlas, to the superior articular process of the lateral mass of atlas and to the posterior margin of the foramen magnum of the occipital bone
What is the earliest age of development where ossification of the anterior free margin of the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament was observed?
about age 7 years old
Based on the amount of ossification of the anterior free margin of the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament what structures will form?
an incomplete ponticulus posticus or a complete ponticulus posticus
What names are given to the opening formed by the ponticulus posticus?
arcuate foramen or retroarticular canal
Ponticulus posticus has observed in what ethnic populations?
all ethnic populations studied thus far
What joint classification(s) may be observed on the posterior arch of C1?
fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint
What are the osseous parts of the transverse process of C1?
costal element, posterior tubercle, true transverse process
What osseous parts of the transverse process are absent at C1?
anterior tubercle and costotransverse bar
What muscles attach to the transverse process of C1?
rectus capitis anterior, rectus capitis lateralis, middle scalene, levator scapula, splenius cervicis, obliquus capitis superior, obliquus capitis inferior and intertransversarii muscles
What sub occipital muscles are known to have fascia projections attaching to the spinal dura?
rectus capitis posterior minor, rectus capitis posterior major, obliquus capitis inferior