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Flashcards in Exam II Study Questions Deck (345)
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1

What is the name of the first cervical vertebra?

atlas

2

What features are lacking at C1?

vertebral body, pedicles, a spinous process and the intervertebral disc

3

What is thought to represent the pedicle at C1?

the anterior arch

4

What muscle attaches to the anterior arch of C1?

longus colli

5

What ligaments will attach to the anterior arch of C1?

the anterior longitudinal, anterior atlanto-occipital and anterior atlanto-axial ligaments

6

What is observed on the back of the anterior arch of C1?

the fovea dentis

7

What joint classifications are observed on the anterior arch of C1?

fibrous (ampiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint and synovial pivot (diarthrosis trochoid) joint

8

What is the morphology of the superior articular facet of C1?

they are elliptical, closer together in front and often demonstrate an elevation subdividing the facet surface into two separate surfaces

9

What is the orientation of the superior articular facet of C1?

backward, upward, medial (BUM)

10

What is the joint classification of the atlanto-occipital zygapophysis?

synovial (diarthrosis) ellipsoidal joint

11

What are the morphological characteristic of the inferior articular facet of C1?

asymmetrical, slightly concave or flattened

12

What is the orientation of the inferior articular facet of C1?

backward, medial, downward (BMD)

13

What is the joint classification of the atlanto-axial zygapophysis?

synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia) joint

14

What muscles attach to the lateral mass of C1?

levator scapular, splenius cervicis and rectus capitis anterior

15

What part of C1 represents the spinous process?

posterior tubercle of the posterior arch

16

What is the distance from the posterior tubercle of the posterior arch to the skin in each gender?

males: about fifty millimeters; females: about thirty-seven millimeters

17

What attaches to the posterior tubercle of the posterior arch of C1?

rectus capitis posterior minor muscle and ligamentum nuchae

18

What superior surface modifications of the posterior arch of C1 are present?

groove/suclus for the vertebral artery and arcuate rim

19

What attaches to the arcuate rim of C1?

the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament

20

What are the attachment sites of the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament?

it is attached to the arcuate rim of the posterior arch of atlas, to the superior articular process of the lateral mass of atlas and to the posterior margin of the foramen magnum of the occipital bone

21

What is the earliest age of development where ossification of the anterior free margin of the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament was observed?

about age 7 years old

22

Based on the amount of ossification of the anterior free margin of the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament what structures will form?

an incomplete ponticulus posticus or a complete ponticulus posticus

23

What names are given to the opening formed by the ponticulus posticus?

arcuate foramen or retroarticular canal

24

Ponticulus posticus has observed in what ethnic populations?

all ethnic populations studied thus far

25

What joint classification(s) may be observed on the posterior arch of C1?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint

26

What are the osseous parts of the transverse process of C1?

costal element, posterior tubercle, true transverse process

27

What osseous parts of the transverse process are absent at C1?

anterior tubercle and costotransverse bar

28

What muscles attach to the transverse process of C1?

rectus capitis anterior, rectus capitis lateralis, middle scalene, levator scapula, splenius cervicis, obliquus capitis superior, obliquus capitis inferior and intertransversarii muscles

29

What sub occipital muscles are known to have fascia projections attaching to the spinal dura?

rectus capitis posterior minor, rectus capitis posterior major, obliquus capitis inferior

30

What are the connections between suboccipital muscles and the spinal dura called?

myodural bridges