Exam II: The Autonomic Nervous System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam II: The Autonomic Nervous System Deck (21):
1

What are the three components of the nervous system?

Brain
Nerves (pathways of communication)
Neurotransmitters

2

What are the two major sections of the Autonomic Nervous System?

Sympathetic (thoracolumbar)
Parasympathetic (craniosacral)

3

What are the 2 key neurotransmitters of the Autonomic NS?

1. Acetylcholine
2. Norepinephrine

4

Where is acetylcholine released from?

Cholinergic nerve fibers

5

All efferent fibers leaving the CNS are ____.

Cholinergic

6

Describe how ACh is made

ACh is made from acetyl-CoA using an enzyme called choline 0-acetyltransferase.

It is synthesized in the mitochondria

After made, it is transfered to neuronal terminal by a choline transporter and stored as "quanta" in vesicles in nerve terminals

7

What does Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) do?

Breaks down ACh into choline and acetate

8

_____ release norepinephrine

Adrenergic nerve fibers

9

Where are adrenergic nerve fibers found?

Make up the postganglionic neurons of sympathetic nervous system

10

What are the actions of norepinephrine? (HINT: 5 actions)

1. Increase HR and BP
2. Mobilize energy stores
3. Increase blood flow to skeletal muscle
4. Divert blood flow from skin and internal organs
5. Dilate pupils and bronchioles

11

What are the 3 termination methods of adrenergic action?

1. NE metabolized by catalytic enzymes

2. Diffusion away from receptor site

3. Reuptake into terminal by norepinephrine transporter (NET) or other cells

12

What are the two types of Cholinergic receptors?

1. Muscarinic

2. Nicotinic

13

What are the three types of Adrenergic receptors?

1. Alpha 1 and Alpha 2

2. Beta 1 and Beta 2

3. Dopamine

14

What are two drugs that inhibit NET?

Cocaine

Tricyclic Antidepressants

15

Which organ system is the major target of the Autonomic Nervous System?

Cardiovascular System

16

Why is there a control function of the autonomic system? (2 reasons)

1. To prevent system from overstimulation

2. Maintain effector organ functions within a narrow window of tolerance

17

What 3 mechanisms control autonomic nervous system?

1. Presynaptic regulation
2. Postsynaptic regulation
3. Other integrated systems

18

2 examples of presynaptic regulation

alpha2 receptors: when activated by NE, they decrease the amount of NE released from that same nerve cell (autoreceptor)

Beta receptors facilitate the release of more NE

19

Two mechanisms of postsynaptic regulation

1. Up or down regulate receptors

2. Action of one receptor is affected by action of other receptors

20

What controls the iris radial muscle?

alpha 1 receptors

21

What controls the iris circular muscle and the ciliary muscle?

M3 receptors (muscarinic)