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Flashcards in Exam Lectures Deck (268):
1

What is growth according to self-expansion theory?

People are motivated to broaden their sense of self by having novel experiences, learning new skills and perspectives

2

What is one example of a way to grow?

Starting a relationship

3

Aron et al (2000) examined the relationship between engaging in novel and arousing activities with partner and _____________

Increased relationship quality

4

What was the hypothesis of the novel activities study by Aaron (2000)

Novel and arousing activities increase relationship quality

5

How do we maintain passion in relationships?

Increasing growth by engaging in novel activities (date nigh) with your partner

6

What is common with all self expanding shared activities

Exciting activities

7

What are key components to exciting shared activities? (5)

- Novelty
- Arousing
- Positive
- Interesting
- Challenging (balance, not too much or too little)

8

Why is it important that the exciting activities are shared?

The excitement from the activity might be transferred to your partner

9

Is there a set list of self-expanding activities?

No, it is different for different people

10

What was the design of the novel activities study by Aron (2000)

1. Pretest measure of satisfaction and passion
2. Performed a task together
3. Post test questionnaire of satisfaction and passion

11

What were the results of the novel activity study

Greater increase in relationship quality following the novel-arousing activities than the more mundane activity and no activity control group

12

What were the 3 conditions in the novel activity study

1. A novel-arousing task
2. A mundane task
3. No activity control group

13

What was the IV in the 4 week excitement intervention program study

Activity Homework:
1. Excitement intervention program
2. Control group (on wait list for excitement intervention program)

14

What was the DV for the 4 week excitement intervention program study

- Positive affect
- relationship satisfaction
Excitement

15

What was the design of the 4 week excitement intervention program study

- Couples made a list of 10 shared activities that had qualities such as novelty, excitement, interest and challenge
- Completed these for 90 minutes a week

16

What were the results of the excitement intervention program study

Couples that participated displayed increased positive affect, excitement, and relationship satisfaction four weeks later compared to those in a control group

17

Daily fluctuations in self expansion are associated with ________

daily relationship quality

18

Approach relationship goals (3)

Pursue growth
Development
Fun

19

Avoidance relationship goals

Avoid pain and conflict

20

Daily measures of expansion likelihood study measures (3)

1. Relationship goals
2. Relationship self-expansion
3. Occurrence of shared self expanding activity

21

Result from the daily diary self-expansion study on a persons own approach goals

Higher daily approach goals reported higher levels of daily self wxpansion

22

Result from the daily diary self-expansion study On their PARTNER's approach goals

When your partner's approach goals were higher your self expansion was higher

23

Result from the daily diary self-expansion study On their PARTNER's approach goals

When your partner's approach goals were higher your self expansion was higher

24

Result from the daily diary self-expansion study on occurance of exciting shared activities

Higher approach goals were linked to increased daily self expansion is because of greater occurance of exciting shared activities

25

Planning fun date study hypothesis

People with high approach goals are more likely to plan and engage in dates that have more exciting properties

26

Results of planning fun date study

People with higher approach relationship goals displayed a higher inclination to plan dates that were more exciting

27

Results of partners actually going on the date that they planned in the planning fun date study

People with higher approach relationship goals were more likely to engage in dates with more exciting qualities

28

Summary of results of the approach goals and shared activities studies for people with increased approach goals (3)

1. Increased daily self expansion
2. Increased occurrence of self-expanding activities
3. Increased inclination to plan and engage in self-expanding, exciting dates

29

What was the IV of the 1st study examining whether boredom prompts people to self-expand (2)

Boredom context
Control

30

What was the DV of the 1st study examining whether boredom prompts people to self-expand (2)

1. "Should" ratings for self expanding activities
2.. Likely ratings for self expanding activities

31

In the 1st study examining whether boredom prompts people to self-expand, when people knew that they were bored, they should ________

engage in self expanding activities

32

In the 1st study examining whether boredom prompts people to self-expand, what was the likelihood ratings of actually engaging in the self expanding activities

People in BOTH the self expanding and control condition gave the same ratings of likelihood

33

What were the 2 IVs of the 2nd In the 1st study examining whether boredom prompts people to self-expand

1. Boredom prime
2. Control

34

What were the 2 DVs of the 2nd study examining whether boredom prompts people to self-expand

1. Intentions to engage in exciting new activities
2. Intentions to engage in familiar and comfortable activities

35

What were the result of the 2nd study examining whether boredom prompts people to self-expand (2)

1. People primed with boredom had greater intentions to try novel activities over familiar activities in the next week
2. People in the bored condition were more likely to plan exciting dates and less familiar dates

36

In the daily diary self-expansion study, people that experienced more daily threat were ______ likely to engage in self expanding activities

less

37

In the daily diary self-expansion study, when they themselves and their partner were experiencing more daily threat were _______ likely to self expand

less

38

Summary of self expanding shared activities, they are:

1. Exciting
2. Associated with increases in relationship quality
3. Can potentially be prompted by boredom

39

People who have higher approach relationship goals have ______ self-expansion and plan/engage in _____ self-expanding activities

greater
more

40

People who have higher threat concerns have _______ self expansion

lower

41

What was the focus of relationship maintenance when the field emerged?

"Putting out fires" and reducing negativity

42

How do partners respond when a partner is in need examples? (3)

- Listen to partner
- Affiliative behaviours (eg. hug)
- Provide comfort

43

Social support in relationships study design

One couple member (support seeker) disclosed personal problem to problem (care-giver) while being videotapes

44

What 3 things were measured in the social support in relationships study

1. Participants completed measures of how the interaction went
2. Research assistants coded them on:
- support giving behaviour
- support seeking behaviour

45

In the social support in relationships study, _________ behaviour (from the care-seeker) led partners to respond with more helpful forms of caregiving (care givers).
Responsive caregiving then lead____________

1. Direct support seeking
2. seekers to feel cared for and experience increased mood

46

In the social support in relationships study, couples in ___________ engaged in more __________ interactions

1. better functioning relationships
2. supportive

47

Capitalizing on positive events:

sharing positive news and how the partner responds to you sharing good news

48

When partner shares good news, what is the best way to respond?

Reciprocating with positive energy

49

What were the 2 questions that were explored in the Capitalization on good news with partner study

1. Is communicating personal positive events with others associated with increased daily positive affect and well being?
2. Does the manner a partner responds to these positive events affect relationship well being?

50

When a person experiences a positive event, positive affect and life satisfaction were higher on the days that the person __________

Shared the positive event

51

When you share good news about a positive event that happens to you, what type of partner response is associated with increased relationship satisfaction

Scoring high on the active, constructive capitalization responses

52

Gratitude in a relationship serves as fuel to increase what?

Mutually responsive behaviours

53

Definition of gratitude

Positive emotional response to intentionally-provided benefits from another

54

In the study of everyday gratitude in couples as a way to promote relationship growth, each day the participants were asked to record what 3 things?

1. Their own and their partner's thoughtful actions
2. Their emotional response to interactions with their partner
3. Relationship well being from that day

55

What was the hypothesis of the study of everyday gratitude in couples?

Gratitude would produce increases in relationship well-being, for the grateful recipient and for the benefactor

56

In the study of everyday gratitude in couples, it was found that partner's thoughtful gesture predicted ________ feelings of gratitude

Increased

57

In the study of everyday gratitude in couples, feelings of gratitude one day predicted ______________ on the subsequent day

increased feeling of relationship quality with the partner

58

In movie-relationship satisfaction study, what were the 3 intervention groups couples were assigned to?

1. Compassion training
2. Conflict management
3. Relationship awareness through film

59

For the movie-relationship satisfaction study, was was the 20 hours a week comprised on in the compassion and conflict management conditions

- weekly lectures
- supervised practice sessions
- homework assignments

60

For the movie-relationship satisfaction study, was was the 20 hours a week comprised of in the movie condition?

Half of the time was for assignments and the other half of the time was spent watching movies

61

In the movie-relationship satisfaction study, how were the movies use for therapy?

They watched a relationship movie and discussed a list of question about the screen couple's interactions afterward and report how similar they were to the couple in the movie

62

Which early marital training resulted in the best outcomes in the movie-relationship satisfaction study?

All were equally good

63

The divorce and separation rate was ____% for the training groups vs ___% for the control group in the movie-relationship satisfaction study

11%
24%

64

What was the bottom line o the movie-relationship satisfaction study

Couples have tools at home to make the relationship better (like a movie and discussion)

65

Aron proposed that we have relationships why

To increase self efficacy

66

Self efficacy:

one's belief about their ability to succeed in situations

67

We increase our self efficacy in relationships by adopting: (3)

Resources
Point of view
Identity

68

What is including self in other

In close relationships our identities can overlap

69

When married couples were assessed in their ability to discern if a trait belonged to them or their partner they were faster to respond when ______ and slower to respond when______?

Faster: when the trait was true for both
Slower: when the trait was true/false for one but not the other

70

Rusbult argued that there are 3 factors that contribute to a decision to stay together with a partner:

1. Relationship satisfaction
2. Investment
3. Quality of alternative

71

4 types of violence in relationships

Physical
Sexual
Psychological
Emotional

72

3 reasons according to the investment model for why people might stay in an abusive relationship

1. Don't beleive there are better alternatives
2. Do not see themselves as worthy of better
3. Do not want to waste time and energy invested

73

Facebook jealousy

feelings of jealousy regarding facebook use of behaviour

74

What attachment style reports more and less facebook jealousy

more: anxiously attached
less: avoidantly attached

75

What partially explains the relationship between anxious attachment style and facebook jealousy y

trust

76

Those high in what attachment style report more infidelity in dating relationships?

avoidant

77

What might be a possible explanation for why avoidant people cheat more in dating relationships

They are less committed to the relationship

78

What attachment style reported more cheeting in when married?

High attachment anxiety

79

What attachment style engages in more continuing bonds (trying to maintain conection) after a break up

Anxiously attached people

80

After a break up people report feeling a change in self concept _____

clarity

81

Who is the father of attachment theory

John Bowlby

82

3 stages of attachment that ate critical to optimal development

Proximity seeking
Safe haven
Secure base

83

Proximity seeking:

Desire to want to be near an attachment figure

84

Safe haven

Ability to feel comfortable and able to turn to an attachment figure in times of distress

85

Secure base

having an available and encouraging figure

86

4 characteristics of attachment anxiety

- Fear of abandonment
- feel anything good may disappear at any moment
- look for a lot of reassurance
- may become volitile

87

4 characteristics of attachment avoidance

- fear of closeness
- feel getting too close to anyone is dangerous
- detached
- may seem remote and cold

88

What is the central assumption of attachment styles

The kinds of bonds we form with our primary caregivers early in life influence the types pf relationships we form as adults

89

What is the "strange situation" experiment

See how a child reacts when a stranger comes in the room, when the mom leaves and when the mom comes back

90

Characteristics of a caregiver who promotes secure attachment (3)

- Available, responsive and helpful
- Used as a secure base for exploration
- Sought in times of distress

91

Characteristics of a child with secure attachment (2)

- Easily soothed when distressed
- Comfortable with exploring environment

92

Characteristics of a caregiver who promotes avoidant attachment (2)

- Insensitive, unavailable and rejects child's needs
- May withdraw from assisting with difficult tasks

93

Characteristics of a child with avoidant attachment (2)

- Is emotionally and physically independent of a care giver
- Does not seek contact with care giver when distressed

94

Characteristics of a caregiver who promotes anxious attachment (2)

- Slow or inconsistent in responding to a child's needs
- may interfere with child's exploration

95

Characteristics of a child with anxious attachment (5)

- Clingy
- Rejects attachment figure
- Fails to develop feelings of security
- less exploring
- difficult to sooth

96

When men and women are insecurely attached, what tends to be their attachment style?

Men = avoidant
Women = anxious

97

Secure children describe relationship with parents as:

Warm

98

Avoidant children describe mother as:

cold and rejecting

99

Anxious children report their father as:

unfair

100

What are the 4 attachment styles according to the avoidance-anxiety paradigm

1. Secure (low avoid, low anx)
2. Preoccupied (low avoid, high anx)
3. Dismissive (high avoid, low anx)
4. Fearful (high avoid, high anx)

101

People tend to pair with others with _____ attachment styles as them

similar

102

When are differences in attachment styles most apparent?

During conflict

103

Distress following a breakup in people with secure attachment

Lowest levels of stress
Felt capable of coping

104

Distress following a breakup in people with insecure attachment

More self defeating thoughts
More social withdrawal

105

Are attachment styles permanent

no

106

If we increase our avoidant attachment style, what happens to our partner's attachment style

Becomes more avoidant or anxious

107

If we become more securly attached, what happens to our partners attachment style

Becomes more secure

108

Results of "Daily relationship experiences" study about what happens on days when their partner experiences more daily threats

They themselves report less self expansion

109

Results of "Daily relationship experiences" study about engaging in exciting activities when they reported more daily threats

They were less likely to engage in an exciting activity

110

Bottom-up approach to research

Asking lay people how they conceptualize a concept to provide a start of a theory

Some things are more prototypical than others

111

On average, ordinary people's views of love fit a ________ view of love

companionate

112

Triangular theory of love what what 3 components

Intimacy (warmth)
Passion (heat)
Commitment (cold)

113

Intimacy

warmth, understanding, trust, support, sharing

114

Passion

Physical arousal, desire, excitement

115

Commitment

permanence, stability, devotion

116

Intimacy only =

liking

117

Passion only =

Infatuation

118

Commitment only =

empty love

119

Intimacy + commitment =

Companionate love

120

Passion + intimacy =

romantic love

121

Passion + commitment =

fatuous love

122

Passion + intimacy + commitment =

Consummate love

123

Berschid's 4 Types of romantic love

1. Romantic
2. Companionate
3. Compassionate
4. Attachment

124

Berschid's Romantic love

Passionate love
Combination of sexual desire or attraction with intense emotions of love

125

Two factor theory of emotion

Argues that high arousal, regardless of its source, will produce passionate love as long as one attributes their agitated state to passion

126

What is the famous study for the two factor theory of emotion?

The bridge study

127

Design of the bridge study

An attractive women approached unaccompanied young men, asked a few questions and asked them to make up a story in response to a picture

128

What were the dependent variables in the bridge study

1. Did they call the attractive experimenter
2. Imagery in the stories (sexual

129

Results of the bridge study

1. Greater occurrence of phone calls in the high arousal condition
2. Greater sexual imagery in the high arousal condition

130

What were the results of the study that examined mens attraction to the same women with high or low attractiveness when the men were in high or low arousal conditions

- All men liked the more attractive woman version of the woman more
- Men in the high arousal condition liked the attractive woman more AND liked the unattractive woman less

131

What did Acevedo and Aron argue about romantic love?

What it does not inevitable die out and turn into companionate love

132

Obsession was positively correlated with relationship satisfaction in ________ relationships but negatively associated with _______ relationships

Short term

Long term

133

Berschid's companionate love

Friendship love, enjoy spending time together

134

Berschid's compassionate love

"Altruistic love"
Involves self sacrifice

135

What were the results of a daily diary study describing their own companionate acts and their perceptions of their partner's compassionate acts in couples

Compassionate love acts contributed to both spouses daily marital satisfaction

136

Berschid's attachment love

Desire to be attached to a person for protection or the good of oneself, feel safe with them

137

Concerning love, there are ____________ between men and women than differences

more similarities

138

Men or women have more relationship awareness

women

139

men or women more likely to seek therapy for marriage troubles

women

140

sex is more central to men or women's conception of intimacy

men's

141

There are more differences in love ____ sexes than between sexes

within

142

Common characteristics of love in Western (individualistic) cultures (3)

- Love = personal happiness
- Focus on romance, sexuality and autonomy
- Individual mate selection

143

Common characteristics of love in Eastern (Collectivist) cultures (3)

- Love = unrequited feelings, sorrow and sadness
- Focus on family stability and social standing
- Family selects mate

144

5 differences of relationships now as compared to back in the day

1. Less people marrying
2. Waiting longer to marry
3. Cohabitate before marriage
4. People have babies without being marries
5. Greater levels of divorce

145

Does love last according to a cross sectional study?

You get s U-shaped curve of happiness

146

Does love last according to a longitudinal study?

On average, love steadily declines over time

147

The first book on male and female anatomy was written by

Alred Kinsey

148

What was Masters and Johnson's contribution to sex research

Observed and studied sex in the lab for the first time

149

What are the 4 reasons people have sex

1. Emotional
2. Physical
3. Pragmatic (attain a goal)
4. Insecurity

150

What does the frequency of couples having sex depend on?

The type and duration of the relationship

151

Do couples or single people have more sex?

Couples

152

How often do young, cohabitating couples have sex

3 times a week

153

Older married couples have sex an average of __ times a week

2

154

Older people have sex ____ frequently than younger people

less

155

In the past year yes/no had sex?:
__% in late 20s
__% men and __% women in 50s
__% men and __% women in 70s

86% 20s
58% men 51% women 50s
43% men and 22% women 70s

156

What sexual orientation couple has the most sex?

Gay men

157

Sociosexuality:

The extent to which a person is comfortable with having sex in the absence of love and commitment

158

How do men differ than women in their sex drive? (4)

- masturbate more
- have sex more often
- want to being having sex sooner
- are more accepting of casual sex

159

Results of the sex thoughts golf tally tracker (3)

1. Men has greater thoughts for all need based cognitions
2. No gender x sexual cognition interaction
3. Men estimated that they would think about sex more often than women, but not for food or sleep

160

More frequent sex is associated with a ______ sex life

happier

161

Is it quality or quantity that is important in a sex life

Quality

162

Approach goals and avoidance goals in sexual satisfaction

People who have sex because they want positive outcomes are more satisfied in their relationships than if they have sex to avoid negative outcomes

163

Perceived relational value

The degree to which others consider their relationships with us to be valuable, important or close

164

Maximum inclusion

Others seek ys out and go out of their way to interact with us

165

Active inclusion

Others welcome us but do not seek us out

166

Passive inclusion

Others allow us to be included

167

Ambivalence

Others do not care whether we are included or not

168

Passive exclusion

Others ignore us but do not avoid us

169

Active exclusion

Others avoid us, tolerating our presence when necessary

170

Maximal exclusion

Others banish us, sending us away or abandon us

171

What 2 things do our emotional reactions to acceptance/rejection depend on?

1. How much we want to be accepted bu others
2. Whether the person regards us positively (rejection hurts less when it is out of competition)

172

Hurt feelings occurs when

When our perceived relational value is lower than we want it to be

173

In terms of acceptance, our self esteem increases sharply when we move from ________ to others wanting us around

ambivalence

174

Does self esteem take more of a hit the stronger the rejection

Not really, any rejection hurts just as much

175

Ostracism

Extreme form of rejection where a person is ignored by those around them

176

What is a common example of ostracism

the silent treatment

177

Ostracism threatens what need?

The need to belong

178

What were the IVs in the Cyber toss with couples study

1. Ostracism (included vs excluded)
2. Partner involvement (partner involved vs not involved)

179

What were the DVs in the cyber toss with couples study

Feelings of closeness, relationship satisfaction, investments and commitment

180

What were the results of the cyber ball toss with couples study

Individuals evaluated their relationship more negatively if they were in the ostracism groups and if their partner was "in" the game

181

Jealousy:

A special form of concern for loss of relational value to a real or imagined rival

182

What are the 2 types of jealousy

Reactive and suspicious

183

Reactive jealousy:

Aware of an active, realistic threat to a valued relationship

184

Suspicious jealousy

Non-realistic threat to a values relationship, overactive imagination

185

6 characteristics of people who are more prone to jealousy:

1. High levels of dependence
2. Low alternative
3. Low self esteem
4. Low mate value (don't think you bring much to the table)
5. Fear of abandonment attachment style, especially preoccupied version
6. High neuroticism

186

Men are more sensitive to sexual infidelity due to:

paternity uncertainty

187

Women are more sensitive to emotional infidelity due to:

fear of loss of resources

188

Betrayal:

Disagreeable, hurtful actions by people we trust that are associated with drops in percived relaitional value

189

Often betrayal in friendships are caused by what? (3)

- Sharing secrets
- not defending friend
- involvement with ones romantic partner

190

Rejection in friendships usually involves

Not inviting a person to a social event

191

Interpersonal conflict is based on incompatible (5) with another person

- motives
- goals
- beliefs
- opinions
- behaviours

192

4 conflict instigating events

1. Criticism
2. Illegitimate demands
3. Rebuffs
4. Cumulative annoyance

193

Criticism

Verbal or non verbal acts that are judges to communicate dissatisfaction with a partner's behaviour

194

Illegitimate demands

Unjust requests that exceed normal expectations in the relationship

195

Rebuffs

Appeals to another for a desired reaction are not returned with the desired reaction

196

Cumulative annoyances

Relatively trivial events that become irritating with repetition

197

If you avoid a conflict, it is perceived as ______ or ______ -- conflict might end here

trivial or insolvable

198

If partners engage and escalate a conflict:

It heats up and often involves dysfunctional communication patterns

199

If partners engage and negotiate a conflict:

They find a solution through rational problem solving

200

4 horsemen of conflict

1. Criticism
2.. Contempt
3. Defensiveness
4. Stonewalling

201

Criticism

Global complaints with internal attributions

202

Contempts

Sneering, disgust, mockery

203

Defensiveness

Blaming partner

204

Stonewalling

Disengaging

205

Directly escalating a conflict

Explicitly challenging the partner on the issue

206

Indirectly escalating the conflict

Intentions are less straight forward, like whining, changing topics

207

Demand-withdraw patterns can escalate a conflict. What is this pattern

When one partner engages in demanding forms of behaviour (complaints, pressure for change) while the other partner engages in withdrawing forms of behaviours (avoiding)

208

Who are more likely to be the demanders and who are more likely to be the withdrawers

Demanders: women
Withdrawers: men

209

Why might the gender differences in the demand withdraw pattern exist?

Differences in power between the genders
>> If you have more power (male) it is easier to not engage because there are few consequences

210

Direct tactics to negotiate conflict (4)

- Accept responsibility
- Paraphrase the other's argument
- Self disclosure
- Add approval and affection

211

Indirect tactics to negotiate conflict

Friendly humour to lighten the mood

212

What 2 theories is accommodation (conflict negotiation) based on?

1. Interdependence theory
2. Exit-voice-loyalty-neglect Model

213

Exit-voice-loyalty-neglect Model

Passive -- Active
Destructive - Constructive
Continuums for conflict

214

Exit

Leave partner, threaten to leave, abuse (Active destruction)

215

Voice

Trying to improve the situation with discussion, obtain advice from therapist or friend, change behaviour (Active Constructive)

216

Loyalty

Waiting and hoping things will improve (Passive Constructive)

217

Neglect

Avoiding discussion, spending time away from partner (Passive Destructive)

218

Accommodation (the golden rule)

When partners behave destructively, responding back constructively instead of lashing out destructively too

219

Volatile couples

Have frequent and passionate arguments
- High levels of positive and negative affect

220

Validator couples

Affirms, polite fighters

221

Avoiding couples

- Rarely argue
- Low levels of negative affect

222

Hostile couples

- nasty fighters
- high levels of negative affect

223

Separation to end conflict

When one or both partners withdraws from the conflict to cool off

224

Domination to end conflict

One partner gets his or her way and the other gets nothing

225

Integrative agreements to end conflict

Satisfy both partners' goals and aspirations through creativity and flexibility

226

Structural improvements to end conflict

Rethink habits in the relationship

227

Reward power

Rewards, tangible or intangible

228

Coercive power

Get your way through punishment or threat

229

Legitimate power

One person actually has authority

230

Referent power

Others doing things for you because they want to remain close to you

231

Expert power

Is the expert in the situation, thought to be right by default

232

Informational power

Has power the other person wants

233

Which gender uses more direct and bilateral strategies to get what they want

Males

234

Which gender used more indirect and unilateral strategies to get what they want

Females

235

Bilateral strategies to get what you want

Seek goals through interaction with partner

236

Unilateral strategy to get what you want

Do what they want by themselves (without consulting partner)

237

What power dynamic results in the most happiness in couples

equal power

238

Which model can help explain why people stay in abusive relationships

Investment model

239

3 factors that contribute to the stability of a relationship according to the investment model

All three together are commitment

1. Satisfaction: costs < rewards
2. Quality of alternatives: other partners, other life options
3. Level of investment: emotions, children, home, friends

240

Commitments predicts what

Whether someone will stay or go in a relationship

241

Women in abusive relationships reported greater levels of commitment to abusive partner when (2)

1. Alternatives were low
2. Investments were high

242

What attachment style in men is most likely to abuse

Men who score high on fear of abandonment (anxious ambivalents)

243

Approx ____ of all marriages end in divorce

half

244

6 reasons divorce rates might have increased

1. Higher expectations
2. Societal changes (women can work, more independent)
3. Increased individualism and social mobility makes us less affected by community norms
4. Laws making divorce easier
5. Grew up in a divorced household
6. More people around us are divorced

245

Barrier model involved 3 factors that influcence the break-up of the relationship

1. Attraction (enhanced by rewards and diminished by costs)
2. Alternatives
3. Barriers (legal and social pressures, cost of breakup)

246

Vulnerability-Stress Adaptation Model highlights 3 contributors to divorce

1. Enduring vulnerabilities (baggage)
2. Stressful events
3. Adaptation (stressful events and enduring vulnerabilities makes some people less able to deal)

247

Who were the subjects in the PAIR Project and what was the goal?

Follow 168 couples over 30 years to examine how couples adapt to their lives together

248

What were the findings of the relationship status of the PAIR project after 13 years

35% divorced
20% unhappy
45% happily married

249

What were the 3 main reasons for divorce in the PAIR project

- Enduring dynamics
- Emergent distress
- Disillusionment

250

Enduring Dynamics

Baggage and personal histories that we bring to the relationship

251

Emergent Dynamics

Problems that emerge in the relationship after they get married

252

Disillusionment

The positive and romanticized views of the relationship begin to fade

253

In the PAIR project, what was found to be the biggest predictor of divorce

Disillusionment
Couples who experienced the steepest declines in positive affect, passion and romanticism divorced the most

254

What did the Early Years of Marriage project discover about the racial differences in divorce rates after 16 years of marriage

36% of white couples divorced
55% of the black couples divorced

255

Why was there more divorce in black couples

Lower socio economic status

256

What did the Marital Instability over the Life Cource study find about the reasons for divorce

Issues in the relationship (infidelity, poor communication)

257

Aside from the relational context (interactions between partners), what other 2 things can influence relationship

1. Cultural context (divorce laws, social norms)
2. Personal context (friends, family)`

258

People who desired to use their partner as an attachment figure after the breakup reported ________ emotional adjustment

less

259

Higher attachment anxiety was associated with ________ emotional adjustment right after and a month after the breakup

less

260

The dumper and the mutual dumpers were _____ emotionally adjected than the dump-ees

more

261

What were the results of the study of people who had recently broken up with someone and journaled with either a positive, negative or neutral focus looking at positive and negative affect

1. Participants in the positive writing condition increased in positive affect
2. There were no differences between the conditions in the experiences in negative emotions

262

2 steps in bottom up prototype development

1. Feature generation
2. Centrality rating

263

How does boredom come about according to the self expantion model

At the beginning of the relationship there is lots of grown, but then there is a deceleration in the merger of the self and other, which leads to feelings of tiredness and boredom

264

2 themes that emerged from the prototype defining of relational boredom

1. Absence of positivity in relationship
2. Disengagement (rather not spend time with them)

265

dimensional model of relationship quality

Appetitive (flourishing to stagnent)
Aversive (sanctuary to insecurity)

266

According to the dimensional model of relational boredom, what can it be conceptualized as

A low appetitive challenge

267

Relational boredom is correlated with decreased: (5)

- Relationship satisfaction
- Exciting activities in the relationship
- Passionate love
- Closeness
- Intrinsic relationship motivation

268

Relationship boredom is correlated with increased: (4)

- Conflict
- Depression and loneliness
- Attraction to alternatives
- Length of relationship