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Anatomy and Physiology ll > Exam lll > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam lll Deck (19):
1

continuous tube that extends from the mouth to the anus through the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities

GI tract

2

organs of the GI tract

mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine

3

accessory digestive organs

teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas

4

functions of the digestive system

-ingest food
-secretes water, acid, buffers, and enzymes into the lumen of the GI tract
-mixes and propels food through the GI tract
digests food
-absorbs digested products from the GI tract into the blood and lymph
-eliminates feces from the GI tract

5

the capability of the GI tract to mix and move material along its length is called

motility

6

the teeth cut and grind food before it is swallowed, and then smooth muscles of the stomach and small intestine churn the food to further assist the process

mechanical digestion

7

the large carbohydrate, lipid, protein, and nucleic acid molecules in food are split into smaller molecules

chemical digestion

8

substances in food that can be absorbed without chemical digestion

vitamins, ions, cholesterol, and water

9

four layers of the GI tract from deep to superficial:

mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, serosa

10

inner lining of the GI tract composed of epithelium in direct contact with the contents of the GI tract lumen that absorbs digested components

mucosa

11

epithelium in the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, and anal canal is primarily ____ and serves a _____ function

squamous
protective

12

simple columnar epithelium which functions in _____ and _____ lines the stomach and intestines

secretion and absorption

13

located among the epithelial cells are ____ cells that secrete mucus and fluid into the lumen of the tract

exocrine cells

14

endocrine cells, collectively called _____ cells secrete hormones

enteroendocrine cells

15

areolar connective tissue containing many blood and lymphatic vessels

lamina propria

16

prominent lymphatic nodules containing immune system cells that protect against entry of pathogens through the GI tract

mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue

17

thin layer of smooth muscle fibers that create small folds in the mucous membrane of the stomach and small intestine

muscularis mucosae

18

consists of areolar connective tissue that binds the mucosa to the muscularis

submucosa

19

the _____ of the mouth, pharynx, and superior and middle parts of the esophagus contains skeletal muscle that produces voluntary swallowing

muscularis