Flashcards in Exam One Deck (46):
Main Powers of the Legislative Branch
Raise taxes, coin money, regulate interstate and foreign commerce, promote arts and sciences, declare war
Main Powers of the Executive Branch
Makes treaties, appoints ambassadors and judges, commander and chief of armed forces
How are the states represented in each house?
How long do Senators serve?
How long do Representatives serve?
Booker T. Washington (goals and philosophy)
Education in crafts and industry (blue collar work), earn the respect of whites through hard work which would lead to integration, born a slave raised in the south (understood the need to integrate and assimilate to avoid further hardship), called an accomodationist, first: blacks must gain economic power which leads to political power
W.E.B. DuBois (goals and philosophy)
Free black from the north, wanted civic equality, voting rights, integration, access to professions, a founder of NAACP and vice president of American Negro Academy, believed in the talented 10th, the most elite black men will bring the entirety of Africans to the top, first black man to receive a PHD from Harvard
Ida B. Wells (her findings about lynching)
She revealed that it was powerful black men being lynched in order to “protect the honor of white women” when really only 25 percent were accused of rape, disclosed that it was the elite and the media (all racists) were involved in the cover up and support of lynching, she did the historians work of reporting on lynching
Plessy v Ferguson
Racial segregation was legal, enforced the “separate but equal” ideology
What is Reconstruction?
Reconstruction (1865-1877) rebuild, reassimilate, reunify. Confederates had to adopt the 13th, 14th and 15th amendments, otherwise the south would remain militarized and could not reenter the union. Also, their CSA debt would be repudiated because there were no longer CSA dollars, and CSA dollars and war bonds would not be transferred to US dollars, essentially bankrupting the south
Or the “Redeemers” wanted to reestablish white supremacy. Along with the KKK, these people composed the Democratic Party in the south
Very similar to slave codes, the Black codes were meant to regulate the behavior, criminalize and economically hurt black Americans. One could not own a gun, could not buy land, had to be home by a curfew, couldn’t gamble, and could be arrested for the most menial of things like speaking too loud in front of a southern woman
Anyone born in the united states is a US citizen
Prevents government from denying a citizen the right to vote based on their race, color, or previous condition of servitude. Poll taxes and literacy taxes were used to circumvent the 15th amendment
Sharecropping and the Crop-Lien System
Sharecropping: when 2/3rds of one’s crop goes to the owner of the land, and the 1/3rd was never enough for the former slaves. Lead to a cycle of debt (crop lien) where one would borrow money from a local merchant with 33-200 percent interest rates and it was made illegal for one to leave the plantation unless debts were paid off
Convict labor was legal due to the loophole in the 13th amendment (slavery is legal when it is a punishment for a crime). It was geared toward black Americans to prevent their gain of any rights, political or economic power. Convict laborers were worth so much less than slaves, which were an investment at the time, so they were treated even more poorly. Law enforcement turned minor mistaminors into felonies for black men specifically. These men worked in coal mines factories, limestone, iron ore, turpentine, brick, and there would be an influx in arrests when a business opportunity came about in a town
Jim Crow laws
State and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern US
Grandfather clause and Poll Taxes
Grandfather clause stated that if your father or grandfather could vote (or oneself) before 1876, you could vote, too. Poll taxes prevented the poor and, by turn, black Americans from voting
Achievements of Reconstruction
13th, 14th and 15th amendments (even if not enforced), Legacy of political participation and black leadership, Independent community’s schools and churches, origionation of black civil rights movements (booker t Washington, WEB Dubois)
Assassination of James Garfield
Assinatied September 1881. He was our last log cabin president, went from nothing to an esteemed lawyer and eventually president. The Republican party was split into two factions, the Slatwarts (wanted to keep spoils system) and Half-Breeds (wanted to eliminate spoils system). Because of this divide, Chester Arthur (Collector of the Port of NY) was forced to be Garfields VP. Charles Guiteau was a stalwart and assinated Garfield because he believed that Arthur would give him a job if he was the reason he became president. He would have lived, but doctors used a metal detector on a coil spring matress and did unsanitized intrusive surgery when he didn’t need it. He then became septic and died. Doctors immediately began always sterelyzing their materials and the secret service and overall civil service was reformed for the better.
Hire your friends into the government. There was a high turn over rate and the government was full of unqualified employees
Get people to go vote by giving them rent money, get out of jail free card, food and booze. People would jump polls to get more votes
Pendleton Civil Service Act
Federal employment based on merit NOT political party affiliation
A defense of “native” born people, wanted to stop or slow immigration. WASPS ( white anglosaxon prodentants) were focusing on elimination of white ethnics (catholic, irish, germans, Eastern orthodox, jews, itialians)
American Protective Association
Anti-catholic organization that wanted to limit immigration, restrict naturalization and office holding
Chinese exclusion act
First restriction on immigration in US History, prohibiting the immigration of Chinese laborers
Working conditions in the late nineteenth century
Absolute shit. The average income of the urban worker was not enough to support a family
What is collective bargaining?
Negotiation of wages and other conditions of employment by an organized body of employees. Was not protected by the government until the 1930s
American Federation of Labor: goals, membership, philosophy
Leader: Samuel gompers. Membership: skilled workers (no women, certain immigrats, blacks, unskilled) Philosophy: they believed in capitalism! Were the most conservative and believed in “bread and butter” reforms (wages, hours, conditions)
Knights of Labor: goals, membership, philosophy
Leader: Terrance V Powderly Membership: “one big brotherhood” EXCEPT lawyers, bankers, saloonkeepers, and gamblers Philosophy: they believed that the working class should stand together! Wanted factories to be owned by workers through worker owned cooperatives! BUT, in the meantime, they still wanted the “bread and butter” reforms and no child labor.
Survival of the economically fittest. The poor are inferior for a reason, and they believed there should be NO government sponsored social programs or private philanthropy so the poor will just die off. Extreme lassie faire. Scientific validity that only the fittest would survive the evolution of society
The Gospel of Wealth
Andrew Carnegie (backed it) the wealthy had the responsibility to reinvest their wealth back into society. PHILANTHROPY. All the while, they still believe the poor are inferior and will not do anything to directly assess and eliminate poverty.
Total government control, everything is equally (ish) distributed to the people through the government
What is Progressivism?
The general movement of reform that sought to address problems of the Gilded Age (economic, political, social and moral reforms). Want to create a balance between capital and labor: reestablish order and stability after decades of growing radicalism. They want to reform and regulate society, government and business and create a balance between a more powerful federal government and lassiez faire
Achievements of the Progressives
Codes for safety and sanitation in housing, mandatory school attendance, improved training for teachers, vocational schools, kindergartens and PTAs, nurses in schools, medical clinics for the poor, minimum working age law, protective legislation for women, prohibition: the 18th amendment in 1919, by 1915, nearly every state outlawed prostitution, direct primaries, Woman suffrage, income tax, direct election of senators
Gives the government the right to tax income
Gives women the right to vote
Theodore Roosevelt: views of corporations
Believed in the supremacy of the government over business, the rich were making too much money and the poor too little, and he wanted to make it known that not even trusts are above the law. Wanted capitalism with regulation
The Square Deal
A compromise that created a balance between capital and labor
Election of 1912
TR challenges a sitting president (and former best friend) Taft for the Republican party nomination. Since there were no direct primaries at this time, the delegates picked the nominee, and at the time they all owed their job to Taft. This split the Republican party to the Progressive faction (progressive party which later molds into the democratic party when FDR runs as a Democrat), and this ensured a Democratic win
Economic, Strategic and Ideological Arguments for Imperialism
Economic: Colonies will provide raw materials and agricultural products (SUGAR)
Colonial peoples will be consumers of industrial products (telegraph lines, utilities, railroads, yellow fever irredaction in Cuba)
Glut Theory: Production had exceeded the demands of the home markets. Surplus goods could be sold in the non-industrial areas of the world.
Strategic: Mahanism: enlarge the navy, acquire overseas bases, promote U.S. naval, economic and territorial expansion (Guantanmo Bay)
Ideological: Imperialism represented Progress (improvement of humankind): Imperialists argued that humans were at different stages in the process of evolution.
But, imperialists believed all could become “civilized”
Europeans could lead others toward civility
White Man’s Burden: the white man had a duty and obligation to civilize the “barbarians”
Distribute new industrial products, erase ignorance and isolation, erode away misunderstandings
Economic, Strategic and Ideological Arguments against Imperialism
Economic: Engage in trade without colonization
Strategic: Colonies would be vulnerable to attack and would create new enemies
Colonialism is anti-American: violated republican principles
Idelogical: Statehood Question: if the U.S. takes territory, it must give citizenry to colonial peoples
Many anti-imperialists opposed citizenship for people beyond current U.S. borders because they were considered alien, backward people that would not be easily assimilated
Causes of the Spanish American War
Cuba had been fighting for its independence from Spain for decades prior: !0 years war with Spain then the Cuban War for Independence after. American people wanted the Cubans to be free, government didnt BECAUSE of sugar and they thought they were inferior and a threat. US intervened because of the DeLome letter("insulting" the US gov) and the explosion of the warship Maine
The people of Cuba are free and independent.
The U.S. will not exercise control over Cuba.
The U.S. will leave Cuba when it is pacified (fighting is over).
The US goes back on Teller promises
The government of Cuba shall never enter into an another compact with any foreign power…
That said government shall not assume or contract any public debt…
Cuba consents that the United States may exercise the right to intervene …
The government of Cuba will sell or lease to the United States lands necessary for coaling or naval stations…
Cuban had to ask permission for EVERYTHING from the US