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Flashcards in Exam One Deck (63):
1

Environmental Geography

How humans interact with the environment and how we solve environmental problems.

2

Population change

For the last 1k years, the population was under 1B. Increased at the 1800s, industrial revolution.

3

Rate of Natural Increase

CBR - CDR expressed as percent

4

Doubling time

time it takes for a population to double.
70 / RNI

5

Demographic Transition Model

Five stages that analyze how a state is developing in terms of economy and health care
Five stages involving birth and death rates and how they fluctuate in relation to one another.

6

Most populated countries

China, India, Indonesia, United States

7

Rapa Nui

Extreme deforestation, no trees, caused mass slaughter and destruction of natl. resources.

8

Rapa Nui

Extreme deforestation, no trees, caused mass slaughter and destruction of natl. resources.

9

Natural Change vs. Human Impact

Natural change was bound to occur, and happens naturally. However, human impact sped this up and altered the cycle.

10

Relative Time Scale

based on superposition and evolution of life

11

Absolute time scale

Radiometric, based on natural radioactivity of elements in rocks. Gives number value for age of the rock

12

How old is the Earth?

4.6byo. Oldest rock in Canada, Zircon Crystal in Australia.

13

Anthropocene Era

Time where human impact started in the geographic timeline, where humans have dominated the environment. Started in the Cenozoic Era, but specifically the Industrial and Agricultural Revolutions

14

What can be used to track human impact on the environment?

I = PAT
Population
Affluence
Technology

15

Hunting and Gathering

More than 90% of human history
Little impact on the environment.

16

Environmental impact of hunting and gathering

Fire
Seeds and nuts
Extinction of great mammals

17

Agricultural Revolution

Soil fertility, availability of crops such as wheat and barley. Livestock. All of humanity's needs were met.

18

Sedentary Agriculture

Cities, surplus of food, growth of population, increased environmental damage.

19

Industrialization

Human and animal to machines driven by steam
Dramatically altered the environment

20

Environmental impact of the Industrial Stage

Population up, World Energy Up
Irrigated area up

World forests down

21

Systemic Impact

Direct impact on a globally functioning system
(CFCs, Climate Change)

22

Cumulative Impact

Small local issues that become important together

23

Land Use

Human purposes that are associated with it.

24

Land Cover

Observed physical cover of the earth's surface

25

Homo habilius

2.5 Mya
Used stone tools

26

Homo erectus

1.8 Mya
Migrated from africa, stood upright

27

Homo neanderthalis

350-24k

28

Homo sapien

150kya - now

29

FAO

Food and Agriculture Organization, started in 1945

30

United Nations

Started in 1945, group of countries working together for international efforts

31

IUCN

International Union for the Conservation of Nature (WHO)
First global environmental organization

32

Montreal Protocol

Developed instruments to track CFCs
Deplete ozone substances

33

Kyoto Protocol

Commencement period until 2020
Binding targets on carbon emissions

34

Paris Climate Agreement

Non-binding agreement that says that countries are to be active in not letting the country go over 2 degrees
174 are active, USA is not.

35

IMF / World Bank

International Monetary Fund
Supports and international environmental efforts

36

Invasive Species

Can be divided by Economic and Ornamental

37

Fires

As much as 75% of African savanna is burned every year

38

Environmental Impact of Fire

Introduced to near every landscape
Still used plenty
Increased Fires lead to Increased env. and climatic impact

39

Grazing

Light grazing increases productivity and diversity
Heavy grazing leads to soil deterioration

40

Forest loss

Temperate areas
Highest rate of deforestation is in the humid tropics

41

How do we protect our forests?

Soil conservation
Sand dune stabilization
Coastal protection
Desertification

42

Two major countries that are going through desertification

Brazil and Indonesia

43

Indonesia and deforestation

Palm oil production
Took $1b from Norway for a two year moratorium on deforestation

44

Peat forest

Commonly burned in Indonesia, 3rd largest contributor to GHGs in the world

45

Mangroves

Reservoir, refuge, feeding ground, and nursery for diverse species.
Buffers against erosion from storms.
Drastically being changed from forests into shrimp farms

46

Desertification

Spread of dry conditions resulting from various factors like climate
Permanent degradation of fertile land

47

Human factors of desertification

Overgrazing
Mismanagement of cropland

48

Natural factors of desertification

Permanent changes in climate, mainly rainfall

49

Prime examples of desertification

Gobi Desert, Sahel, Aral Sea

50

Great Green Wall

Current desertification reduction effort to hold back the Gobi Desert

51

Consequences of desertification

Reduces ability of land to support life
Increased run off
Positive feedback loop

52

How can you combat desertification?

Add compost and humus to soil
plant trees
Construct barriers

53

What land mass is the most at risk for invasive species?

Ocean Islands

54

Major threats of Invasive Species

Reduction of biodiversity and all other natural processes (soil chemistry, hydrological conditions)

55

Four main components of soil

Air, water, minerals, and organic material

56

Five main soil influencers

Climate
Organisms
Parent Material
Time
Topography

57

What can happen to a soil column?

Acidification, Salination, Compaction, chemical contamination, erosion

58

Salination

Accumulation of free salts that degrade vegetation

59

Soil Erosion

Natural process accelerated by human actions.
Kenya guiles and dust bowls. Accelerated by deforestation and overgrazing.

60

How can soil erosion be reduced?

Contour tillage
Strip cropping, double cropping, wind breaks

61

How can human activity be divided?

Direct (dams, farming, etc)
Indirect (subsidence, gully systems)

62

Excavation

One of the oldest human activities
Physical removal of the crust

63

Mineral extraction

Most important causes of environmental degradation