Exam One, Chapter One Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam One, Chapter One Deck (127):
1

*A circumscribed, elevated lesion that is MORE THAN 5 mm in diameter *Usually contains serous fluid, and looks like a blister

bulla

2

*A segment or lobe that is part of a whole *These lobes sometimes appear fused together

lobule

3

*An area that is usually distinguished by a color different from that of the surrounding tissue *It is flat and does not protrude above the surface of the normal tissue EXAMPLE: FRECKLE

macule

4

* A small, circumscribed lesion usually less than 1 cm in diameter *It is elevated or protrudes above the surface of normal surrounding tissue

papule

5

Variously sized circumscribed elevations containing pus

pustule

6

A small, elevated lesion less than 1 cm in diameter that contains serous fluid

vesicle

7

Attached by a stemlike or stalklike base similar to that of a mushroom

pedunculated

8

Describes the base of a lesion that is flat or broad instead of stemlike

sessile

9

*A palpable solid lesion up to 1 cm in diameter found in soft tissue *Can occur above, level with, or beneath the skin surface

nodule

10

The evaluation of a lesion by feeling it with the fingers to determine the texture of the area

palpation

11

What are the descriptive terms for palpation?

soft, firm, semifirm, and fluid filled

12

What are the most frequent colors of lesions?

red, pink, slamon, white, blue-black, gray, brown, and black

13

An abnormal redness of the mucosa or gingiva

erythema

14

A clinical term used to describe an oral lesion that appears as a smooth red patch or granular red and velvety patch. It is less common than leukoplakia

erythroplakia

15

Paleness of the skin or mucosal tissues

pallor

16

A clinical term for a white, plaquelike lesion on the oral mucosa that cannot be rubbed off or diagnosed as a specific disease

leukoplakia

17

what are the sizes of the lesions measured in?

cm or mm

18

Wrinkled

corrugated

19

a cleft or groove, normal or otherwise, showing prominent depth

fissure

20

resembling small, projections or elevations found in clusters

papillary

21

What can the surface textures be on a lesion?

corrugated, fissured, papillary, smooth, rough, and folded

22

The process by which parts of a whole join together, or fuse to make one

coalescence

23

Describes a lesion with borders that are not well defined, making it impossible to detect the exact parameters of the lesion

diffuse

24

*Describes a lesion that extends beyond the confines of one distinct area *defined as many lobes or parts that are somewhat fused together "soap bubbles" radigraphically

Multilocular

25

Radiographically, the apex of the tooth appears shortened or blunted and irregularly shaped. Occurs as a response to stimuli, like a cyst, tumor, or trauma

root resorption

26

Arises from tissue outside of the tooth, such as the periodontal ligament

external root resorption

27

*triggered by pulpal tissue reaction from within the tooth *The pulpal area can be seen as a diffuse radiolucency beyond the confines of the normal pulp area

internal root resorption

28

A radiolucent lesion that appears to extend up the periodontal ligament and between the roots

scalloping around the root

29

Having one compartment or unit that is well defined or outlined as in a simple radicular cyst

unilocular

30

used to described a lesion with borders that are specifically defined and in which one can clearly see the exact margins and extent

well circumscribed

31

Something that deviates form what is normal

anomaly

32

dysphagia

difficulty swallowing

33

dysphonia

difficulty speaking

34

dyspnea

difficulty breathing

35

What is the brush test?

It is used to obtain information from oral mucosal epithelium. A circular brush is used to obtain cells from the full thickness of the epithelium.

36

Can a white lesion be diagnosed on the basis of clinical appearance alone?

NO

37

*May appear as a radiolucency that scallops around the roots *when the lesion is opened surgically, an empty void is found

Traumatic bone cyst

38

Surgical examination of the well-circumscribed, radiolucent area reveals salivary gland tissues entrapped during development

Lingual mandibular bone cavity (static bone cyst)

39

What are common conditions to be diagnosed by therapeutic means?

nutritional deficiencies

40

*may be associated with a deficiency of B-complex vitamins *most commonly a fungal condition and responds to topical application of an antifungal cream or ointment such as Nystatin

Anular cheilitis

41

Responds to hydrogen peroxide, very painful, and is stress induced

Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (NUG)

42

That point in the diagnostic process when the practitioner decides which test or procedure is required to rule out the conditions originally suspected and to establish the definitive or final diagnosis

Differential Diagnosis

43

*Clusters of ectopics sebaceous glands *Appear as yellow lobules in clusters *commonly observed on vermillion border f lips and buccal mucosa *NO TREATMENT

fordyce granules

44

The pigment that gives color to skin, eyes, hair, mucosa, and gingiva. This is most commonly observed in dark-skinned individuals

Melanin pigmentation

45

* A sessile nodule on the gingival margin of the lingual aspect of the mandibular cuspids * Only a few mm in size *observed more often in young *Resolves with age

Retrocuspid papilla

46

*red to purple enlarged vessels or clusters *Usually observed on the ventral and lateral surfaces on the tongue * Most commonly observed in ppl 60 and older

Lingual varicosities

47

*A generilized opalescence on the buccal mucosa *Most common in black adults *If mucosa is stretched, it is less prominent * NO TREATMENT

Leukoedema

48

Undescended, trapped remnant of thyroid tissue. A mass in the midline of the dorsal surface of the tongue posterior to the circumvallate papillae in the area of the foramen cecum. Usually a sessile base and is 2-3 cm in width

lingual thyroid

49

What is the predilection of lingual thyroid?

females and linked to hormonal changes

50

What is the treatment for lingual thyroid?

Evaluation of patient to see whether the thyroid gland is present in its normal location

51

What is the clinical appearance of median rhomboid glossitis?

Flat or slightly raises oval or rectangular erythematous area in the center of the tongue

52

May be associated with a chronic infection with Candida albicans. No treatment but antifungal treatment may be used

median rhomboid glossitis

53

what is the clinical appearance of erythema migrans?

Erythematous patches surrounded by a white or yellow border. Diffuse areas devoid of filiform papillae. Distinct presence of fungiform papillae. There appear to be remission and changes in the depapillated areas

54

Genetic factors may play a role in presence, may be caused by stress. Pt. may complain of burning discomfort. NO TREATMENT

Erythema migrans

55

Term used to describe "geographic tongue" found on mucosal surfaces other than tongue

ectopic geographic tongue

56

What is the clinical appearance of a fissured tongue?

The dorsal surface of the tongue appears to have deep fissures or grooves

57

What is a fissured tongue caused by?

Genetic factors, seen in about 5% of population

58

*elongated filiform, papillae are white * Caused by an increase in keratin production of a decrease in normal desquamation

white hairy tongue

59

Papillae are brown to black because of chromogenic bacteria

black hairy tongue

60

What are the contributing factors of black hairy tongue?

food, hydrogen peroxide, tobacco, alcohol, chemical rinses

61

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Bulla

62

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Lobulated torus palatinus

63

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Macule

64

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Papule

65

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pustule

66

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Vesicle

67

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Pedunculated

68

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Sessile

69

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Erythroplakia

70

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Leukoplakia

71

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Corrugated

72

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Fissured

73

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Papillary

74

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Multiocular

75

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Root resorption

76

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Scalloping around the root

77

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Unilocular

78

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Well circumscribed

79

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Fordyce granules 

80

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Mandibular tori

81

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Melanin pigmentation

82

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Retrocuspid papilla

83

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White/black hairy tongue

84

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Amalgam tattoo

85

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Internal root resporption

86

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External root resorption 

87

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Calculus

88

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Nutrient canals

89

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Amelogenesis imperfecta

90

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Dentinogenesis imperfecta

91

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Skin graph

92

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Traumatic bone cyst

93

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Lingual mandibular bone cavity (static bone or Stafine bone cyst)

94

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Angular chelitis 

95

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Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (NUG)

96

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Torus palatinus

97

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Lingual varicosities

98

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Linea alba

99

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Leukoedema

100

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Median rhomboid glossitis

101

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Erythema Migrans

102

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Ectopic geographic tongue

103

After arriving at a differential diagnosis, information from which one of the following categories will best establish a final or definitive diagnosis?

A. Clinical

B. Historical

C. Microscopic

D. Radiographic

C. Microscopic

104

The descriptive term that would best be used for a freckle is a:

A. Bulla

B. Vesicle

C. Lobule

D. Macule

D. Macule 

105

Which one of the following terms describe the base of a lesion that is stalklike?

A. Sessile

B. Lobule

C. Pedunculated

D. Macule

C. Pedunculated

106

Clinical diagnosis can be used to determine the final or definitive diagnosis of all of the following except:

A. Fordyce granules

B. Uneruped supernumerary teeth

C. Mandibular tori

D. Erythema migrans

B. Unerupted supernumerary teeth

107

Radiographic diagnosis would contribute to the definitive diagnosis of all of the following except:

A. Internal resorption

B. Periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia

C. Odontoma

D. A retained deciduous tooth

B. Periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia

108

To determine the prescence of blood dyscrasias, which one of the following would provide the most definitive information?

A. Lab blood tests

B. Bleeding during probing

C. Pallor of the gingiva and mucosa

D. Patient complain of weakness

A. Lab blood tests

109

When an antifungal ointment or cream is used to treat angular chelitis, which one of the following diagnositc categories is being used?

A. Clinical

B. Therapeutic

C. Laboratory

D. Differential

B. Therapeutic

110

Yellow clusters of ectopic sebaceous glands commonly observed on the buccal mucosa and evaluated through clinical diagnosis are most likely:

A. Lipomas

B. Fibromas

C. Fordyce granules

D. Linea Alba

C. Fordyce granules

111

A slow-growing, bony hard, exophytic growth on the midline of the hard palate is developmental and hereditary in origin. The diagnosis is determined through clinical evaluation. You suspect:

A. Torus palatinus

B. Mixed tumor

C. Palatal cyst

D. Nasopalatine cyst

A. Torus palatinus

112

The "white line" observed clinically on the buccal mucosa that extends from anterior to posterior along the occlusal plane is:

A. Leukoedema

B. Leukoplakia

C. Linea alba

D. Lichen planus

C. Linea alba

113

Which one of the following occurs as an erythematous area, is devoid of filiform papillae, is oval to rectangular in shape, does not change its characterisitcs, and is located on the midline of the dorsal surface of the tongue?

A. Median rhomboid glossitis

B. Erythema mirgrans

C. Fissured tongue

D. Lingual thyroid 

A. Median rhomboid glossitis

114

Which one of the following diagnostic categories would the dental hygienist most easily apply to the preliminary evaluation of oral lesions?

A. Microscopic

B. Clinical 

C. Therapeutic

D. Differential 

B. Clinical 

115

Which one of the following terms is most used to describe mandibular tori?

A. Bullous

B. Lobulated

C. Sessile

D. Pedunculated

B. Lobulated

116

The identification of which one of the following is not determined by clinical diagnosis?

A. Fordyce granules

B. Tori

C. Compound odontoma

D. Retrocuspid papilla

C. Compound odontoma

117

Another term for erythema migrans is?

Geographic tongue

118

What percentage of erythoplakia is diagnosed as severe epithelial dysplasia or squamous cell carcinoma?

90%

119

What is the number of types of HPV?

More than 130

120

Which one of the following define leukoplakia?

A. Clinical 

B. Histologic

C. Historical

D. Microscopic

D. Microscopic

121

Gingival enlargement is cause by which of the following groups of drugs?

A. Antiviral

B. Calcium channel blockers

C. Antibiotics

D. Hypersensitivity medications

B. Calcium channel blockers

122

The best way to determine whether lingual thyroid contains the patients functioning thyroid tissue is:

Thyroid scan

123

Retrocuspid papilla are found on the:

Lingual aspects of mandibular canines

124

The benign stratified squamous cell papilloma is considered low rish and is associated with which types of HPV?

 

6 and 11

125

The most common location for lingual thyroid is?

Between the foramen cecum and epiglottis

126

What are the characterisitcs of periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia

Black women

Vital teeth

Mid 30s

127