Exam Questions Flashcards Preview

Mammalian Biology > Exam Questions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam Questions Deck (16):
1

Why is homeostasis important for mammals?

maintains balance. Breathing, metabolic processes, diffusion across membranes and enzyme function

2

Thermoregulation

Body regulates temperature. It is a homeostatic mechanism

3

Describe mechanisms involved with thermoregulation

Receptor, Control centre, Effector: Negative feedback. Cold: Heater turns on Hot: Heater turns off

4

Name the 5 types of epithelial cells

Squamous, stratified squamous, cuboidal, columnar and ciliated columnar epithelial cells

5

Function and of ciliated columnar

Cilia moves and pushes mucus into a layer e.g. pushes mucus along the surface of the uterus or upper respiratory tract

6

Function and example of cuboidal cells

Dice shaped for secretion e.g. kidney tubules and salivary glands

7

Function and example of squamous

Thin and leaky e.g. air sacs of the lungs

8

Function and example of columnar

Large cytoplasmic volume, absorbs nutrients, secretion e.g. Intestines and digestive juices

9

Function and example of stratified squamous

Rapidly regenerating, for places of abrasion, new cells originate from the basal side and the old cells are sloughed off e.g. Skin and lining of the oesophagus

10

Exocrine secretions in the stomach

Gastric juices containing enzymes, mucus and HCL and mucus cells form protective barrier

11

G cells

Release gastrin which stimulates the release of gastric juices: increase digestion

12

Exocrine secretions of the pancreas

Amylase break down polysaccharides, lipase breaks down triglycerides and enzymes digest compounds in chyme.

13

What is the role of bicarbonate ions released in the pancreas?

Neutralize the acidity in chyme.

14

What is Trypsin and where is it found?

Trypsin (active) catalyzes the activation of trypsinogen (inactive). Trypsinogen is secreted from the pancreas into the duodenum

15

What happens to trypsinogen in the duodenum?

Trypsin cleaves proteins at the C-terminal side of trypsinogen to create tryspin

16

What does trypsin do?

Breaks down dietary protein molecules