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1

Describe three features of their social learning theory (Bandura)

(a) observation and modelling rather than stimuli
(b) imitation -will copy behaviour they have observed
(may use bobo doll experiment to describe this)
(c) role models - will choose similar to/more powerful
(d) rewards/vicarious reinforcement often intrinsic
(e) must be observed by imitator in order to be copied
(f) imitator’s behaviour decreased if punishment
observed
(g) low self esteem can lead to greater imitation
(h) will cho

2

Describe three features of their social Learning theory ( Tajfel)

(a) those with low self esteem especially will identify with
a group with positive self image
(b) the stronger the positive image will result in a more
positive social identity and in turn social image
(c) the need for identity as superior or ‘in group’ is very
strong
(d) may result in some groups being rejected

3

Describe three features of their social learning theory (Latane)

(a) social impact - more impact the greater the source’s,
immediacy and importance- this helps us to
understand obediency and conformity
(b) presence of others affects behaviour – more likely to
wait for guidance, shared responsibility
(c) bystander effect - the more that are present the fewer
that will help
(d) individuals put in less effort when working as a group

4

How could this theory be used to explain how children learn behavior (Social learning theories)

(a) e.g. if child observes behaviour of child who generally
shares well and takes turns they will notice that this
behaviour is rewarded by being popular. The child will
then copy this behaviour and in turn will internalise it
and it will then take on that behaviour as normal.
(b) e.g. will identify with in group and so adopt their
behaviour. If not part of it will feel rejected and this
could also influence their behaviour
(c) e.g. if working within a group that are generally
conforming - likely to succumb to this

5

Describe three features of their psycho dynamic theory ( Freud)

a) founder of modern PSYCHO ANALYTICAL theory - a
mix of biological and some learning motivating
SOCIAL and EMOTIONAL development/personality
b) psycho sexual - early years follows 3 phases, often
overlapping - oral, anal and phallic. Followed by
latency and genital (5 stages)
c) mind consisted of conscious, pre conscious and
unconscious
d) emotions and behaviour driven by id, ego and super
ego
e) early experiences within first 4 years of family life
greatly influence personality development / Oedipus
and Electra complexes
f) as basic needs are satisfied - biological drives
(influence of carer) pleasure occurs and so becomes
basic principle of life
g) suppression/too much focus can be dangerous to
healthy development of personality
h) may explain any of following terms – regressions,
repression, denial, displacement, projection,
sublimation, rationalisation, fixation and defense
mechanisms (accept these terms individually)
i) generally pessimistic (early development and ‘that’s
it’)

6

Describe three features of their psychodynamic theory (Erikson)

a) social and personality development but less emphasis
on sexual drives more focus on psycho social
b) must take on and resolve stages/crises/dilemmas
which are linked to changing social demands
c) may describe any of following stages to make the
point that it is a stage theory
d) people continue to develop and change throughout
life
e) each stage is described in terms of the positive or the
negative outcomes that may happen following the
developmental stage
f) early experiences provide a foundation for later
development
g) generally optimistic (development throughout life)

7

What are the stages of Erikson's psychosocial theory and what do they mean

AGE CRISIS OUTCOMES INFLUENCES
0-1 trust v
mistrust
hope v insecurity main carer
1-2 autonomy v
shame/doubt
willpower/self
esteem v shame/
doubt
parents
3-5 initiative v
guilt
sense of purpose
v guilt over feelings
Family
6 industry v
puberty inferiority
confidence/
competence v
inadequacy
neighbourhood/
school
adolescence -
12/18 identity v
role confusion
trustworthy/reliable
v insecure/
suspicious
peers
20’s intimacy v
isolation
feel love (d) v
unsuccessful
relationships/
loneliness
sex partners
colleagues
20-50’s
generativity v
stagnation
care/compassion v
boredom/ self
obsession
household/
society
50+ integrity v
despair
wisdom/
satisfaction/
acceptance of
death v regret/fear
of death
Mankind

8

Explain why practitioners may criticise this theory (Freud)

Freud
9 much of theory based on work as therapist with
mostly middle class, middle aged female clients
9 unscientific – lack of evidence and cannot be proved
9 sees child as being passive - no active role
9 focuses on people’s thoughts, feelings rather than
behaviour

9

Explain why practitioners may criticise this theory (Erikson)

Erikson
9 based on Freud so same limitations
9 non-medical background
9 any reasonable comment backed up with example,
opinion - this may include comparisons

10

Describe two of the needs identified by their theory (Maslow)

• physical/physiological needs (not psychological)
• safety/security needs – freedom from threat, danger,
intimidation
• sense of belonging and love needs
• self-esteem needs need to be recognised and
acknowledged
• cognitive needs - to understand and have knowledge
• aesthetic needs - experience beauty
• self actualisation needs - self fulfilment

11

Describe using examples, how these needs could be met for older people in a residential home (Maslow)

a) application of care values - promoting equality and
diversity all clients still need to have needs such as
self esteem cognitive etc met despite age, so if care
worker is carefully applying these values, these needs
should be met
(b) promoting rights and beliefs, remember that although
may have to follow strict routines, also encourage to
make decisions for themselves where possible etc
(c) confidentiality - v important for trust building and so
meet sense of belonging, self esteem etc
(d) general understanding of roles of care workers –
focus often on meeting basic physical care needs but
need also to focus on sense of belonging especially
as no longer in own home, self esteem could below
as loss of independence, there fore need to be aware
of this
(e) any appropriate examples given for basic care needs
(f) aesthetic/creativity - could look at visits/painting
classes etc
(g) positive regard from others - remember to listen and
show

12

Analyse how socio-economic factors could have an effect on the physical development of young children

F = family
E = education
H = housing
C = culture
A = access to health services
N = nutrition/diet
I = income differences

13

Analyse how environmental influences could affect the development of children

(a) Air pollution examples asthma/respiratory infections
and consequences on physical development. Positive
factors -good environment - playing out in clean, safe
community - social, emotional and physical
development
(b) Water pollution examples could include physical
health - impact on physical development may be
knock on effects of being ill and missing
school(intellectual)
(c) Noise pollution - concentration - intellectual.
Emotional strain etc
(d) Location – including housing, access to facilities,
public transport
(e) Social exclusion – including crime (as victims/drawn
into early offending)
(f) Nurture (side of nature/nurture debate) – quality of
environment, care they receive, housing, etc.
P = Physical
I = Intellectual
E = Emotiona

14

Analyse how inherited factors could influence human development

• diseases/illnesses - some cancers, cystic fibrosis etc,
likely to link to physical development in terms of
sports/exercise etc affecting acquisition of skills
• may discuss missing school - intellectual
• missing out on social gatherings and emotional impact
on self image etc
• characteristics - growth and therefore physical
development, intellect? Personality?
• race
• appearance
• resentment of those who pass on genes – ‘blame their
parents’
• a feeling of closeness as a result of physical similarities
• pre-disposition towards (quality indicator)
P = Physical
I = Intellectual
E = Emotional
S = Socia

15

Identify one constructivist theorist. Analyse how their theory could be used ot explain how children reach their full potential ( Piaget)

DESCRIPTION/GENERAL COMMENTS
(a) STAGES of development
(b) maturation process
(c) assimilation, accommodation, equilibration/schemas
(d) linked to intellectual development
(e) interactionist - with environment
(f) children must master learning dilemmas before being
able to develop
(g) reaction to events will be influenced by the child’s
personal constructions of world
(h) importance of free play
JUDGEMENTS/OPINIONS/APPLICATIONS
• theory has recognised importance in early years and
special needs education
• based on detailed observations of own childrenlimitations

• underestimations of intellectual/abilities of young
children but broad outline still used
• focuses on average child - although all may be in
same stage but cognitive ability may well be affected
by their intelligence and social environment
• providing range of learning experiences - child can
do more - stretch the child
• better if questioned in natural environment/situation
rather than lab.
• baseline assessments of children - help CCEW give
appropriate activities to promote and extend learning

16

Identify one constructivist theorist. Analyse how their theory could be used ot explain how children reach their full potential (Vygotsky)

VYGOTSKY
(a) importance of child’s social and cultural factors -
access to early years settings of obvious benefit
(b) learning can come first and even cause development
- try to give activities which they are unfamiliar
with so they reach potential
(c) zone of proximal development - distance between
actual and potential learning - teaching is far
enough ahead to be a challenge but not
impossible - also important to assess each
child’s capabilities accurately
(d) thinking, memory, perception and language strongly
influenced by culture - provide wide and varied
cultural experiences to promote these skills
(e) understanding comes from interaction with peers
and adults as well as environment - interaction
very important also groups work to interact with each
other
(f) child will internalise social interaction
(g) PLAY – planned to enable them to enact real life
situations emphasises importance of skilled
adult/teacher – teacher’s role is very significant so
important to get it right