Exam Review Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Exam Review > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam Review Deck (139):
0

What are the 3 subatomic particles and their charges?

Proton (+)
Neutron 0
Electron (-)

1

What is matter?

Anything that takes up space and has mass

2

What is an atom?

Particles so small they are indivisible

3

What is a molecule?

Chemical particles composed of 2 or more atoms

4

What are the 3 electron shells?

1 -> 2
2 -> 8
3 -> 18

5

How do you calculate the weight of a molecule?

Sum of atomic weights

6

What is a mole?

Equivalent to avagadros number, periodic table atomic mass is in grams per mol

7

What 3 elements make up most of the human body?

Oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen

8

What is an ion?

Charged particle with unequal number of protons and electrons

9

What is a cation?

Positive charge

10

What is an anion?

Negative charge

11

What is an isotope?

Differ in number of neurons the atom contains

12

What is free radical?

Odd number of electrons that want to become stable

13

What is an electrolyte?

Salts that ionize water

14

What are the 3 atomic bonds?

Covalent, ionic, and hydrogen

15

What is a covalent bond?

Forms by sharing electrons

16

What is an ionic bond?

Attraction of cation to anion

17

What is a hydrogen bond?

Weak attractive between slightly positive hydrogen and slightly negative oxygen

18

What is a polar covalent bond?

Electrons shared unequally

19

What is a Nonpolar covalent bond?

Electrons shared equally

20

What are the 7 properties of water?

Polarity, solvency, adhesion, cohesion, surface tension, thermal stability, and chemical reactivity

21

What is polarity?

Properties of water that support life

22

What is solvency?

Ability to dissolve other chemicals

23

What is adhesion?

Tendency to cling substances together

24

What is cohesion?

Tendency of a substance to cling to itself

25

What is surface tension?

Surface film on water

26

What is thermal stability?

Takes a lot of heat to change phases

27

What is chemical reactivity?

Able to ionize other substances to become ionized

28

What does hydrophobic mean?

Doesn't like water

29

What does hydrophilic mean?

Like water

30

What does ampiphillic mean?

Both hydrophobic and hydrophilic parts

31

What's the difference between a calorie and a Calorie?

calorie- heat needed to raise 1 g of water 1 degree Celsius
Calorie- 1000 calories

32

What is suspension?

Has large particles mixed in a solvent
Ex: blood cells in blood plasma

33

What is a colloid?

A mixture of larger particles in a solvent
Ex: albumin in plasma

34

What is a solution?

Solute mixed with a solvent

35

What is a solute?

Substances that dissolve

36

What is a solvent?

Substances that does the dissolving

37

What is an acid?

A proton donor

38

What is a base?

A proton acceptor

39

What happens when an acid and base are mixed?

Neutralized substance

40

What is the pH of water?

7 (neutral)

41

What is the pH of blood?

7.35-7.45 (basic)

42

What is a buffer?

Resist changes in pH

43

What are the 3 chemical reactions?

Decomposition
Synthesis
Exchange

44

What is an organic compound?

Compounds containing carbon

45

What are the 4 organic compounds?

Carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids

46

What are foods composed of carbs?

Sugars and starches

47

What are elements in carbs?

Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

48

What's a monosaccharides generic formula?

C6H12O6 (glucose)

49

What are fatty acids?

Chain of 24 carbon atoms with a carboxyl and methyl group at the ends

50

What is a saturated fatty acid?

Maximum amount of hydrogens

51

What is an unsaturated fatty acid?

Has double bonds

52

What is a triglyceride?

3 fatty acids bonded to a glycerol

53

What is a steroid?

Lipid with carbon atoms arranged in 4 rings

54

Whah molecules does the body use to make steroid hormones?

Cholesterol

55

What's a phospholipid?

Triglyceride with a phosphate group

56

How many amino acids are in the human body?

20

57

What is a peptide?

2 or more amino acids joined by peptide bonds

58

What is a polypeptide?

More than 15 amino acids

59

What is primary structure?

Chain of amino acids

60

What is tertiary structure?

Beta pleated sheets

61

What is quarternary structure?

2 or more polypeptide chains

62

What is conformation?

3D shape crucial to function

63

What is denaturation?

Change that destroys a function

64

What's a conjugated protein?

Containing a non amino acid moiety

65

What are the 7 functions of proteins?

Structure, communication, membrane transport, catalysis, recognition and protection, movement, cell adhesion

66

What is an enzyme?

Proteins that are catalysts. Speed up reactions

67

What is a substrate?

Binds to an enzyme and is the site it acts upon

68

How do enzymes speed up reactions?

Lowers activation energy

69

What are cofactors?

Non protein partners and changes enzymes shape

70

What are coenzymes?

Organic cofactors

71

What is the metabolic pathway?

chain of reactions

72

What are the sub units of nucleic acids?

DNA and RNA

73

What 3 things make up a nucleotide?

Nitrogenous base, sugarcane and phosphate group

74

What are the structural differences in DNA and RNA?

DNA is double stranded RNA is single stranded and smaller

75

What are the 5 points of the cell theory of life?

All organisms are composed of cells. Cell is simplest structural unit of life. Cellular activity relates structures and functions. Cells come from other cells. Cells have many similarities

76

What is ATP?

Adenosine triphosphate and it is the most important energy molecule

77

Why are cells microscopic?

Small surface area

78

What is cytosol?

Gel like solution where organelles and cytoskeleton is embedded

79

What is cytoplasm?

Contents of cell between plasma membrane and nuclear envelope

80

What are integrated proteins?

Do not go through membrane

81

What are 3 functions of the plasma membrane?

Defines boundaries, controls interactions, controls pathways of cell

82

What are peripheral proteins?

Go through plasma membrane

83

What are the 7 functions of membrane proteins?

Receptors, messenger, enzymes, ion channels, carriers, glycoproteins, and holding cells together

84

What is cilia?

Hair like processes, move materials

85

What is flagella?

Whip like structures

86

What are microvilli?

Extensions that add surface area

87

What is the function of the nucleus?

Brain of cell

88

What surrounds the nucleus?

Nuclear envelope

89

What is the endoplasmic reticulum function?

Synthesizes steroids, lipids, detox, and creates membranes

90

What is the rough ER?

Flattened sacs with ribosomes

91

What does the rough ER do?

Makes steroids and lipids, detoxifies alcohol, manufactures membranes

92

What does the smooth ER do?

Detox and stores calcium in muscle cells

93

What do ribosomes?

Translates mRNA to protein

94

Function of Golgi apparatus?

Packages protons and glycoproteins and forms vesicles and lysosomes

95

What are lysosomes?

Package of enzymes

96

What is autodigestion?

Digestion of worn out organelles

97

What is apoptosis?

Programmed cell death

98

What is the function of mitochondria?

Synthesize ATP

99

What are christae?

Double unit membrane inside mitochondria

100

What is the matrix?

Space between christae

101

How many ATP are made during the breakdown of glucose?

38 ATP

102

What is the function of a centriole?

Cilia function

103

What is the function of the cytoskeleton?

Support and shape of cell

104

What structures make up the cytoskeleton? (3)

Micro filaments
Intermediate filaments
Microtubules

105

How does a cell change it's shape?

Conformation

106

What is diffusion?

Movement from high concentration to low concentration

107

What is osmosis?

Diffusion of water down a concentration gradient

108

What does hypertonic mean?

Absorbs water

109

What does hypotonic mean?

Gives up water

110

What does isotonic mean?

Water flows in and out

111

What is carrier mediated transport?

Proteins that carry solutes across membrane

112

What is facilitated transport?

Transport solute down a gradient

113

What is active transport?

Transport of solute up a gradient

114

What is endocytosis?

Taking into cell

115

What is exocytosis?

Releasing outside of cell

116

What is phagocytosis?

Eating of cells

117

What is pinocytosis?

Cell drinking

118

What is cotransport?

2 or more solutes carried in the same direction

119

What's antiport?

Carry 2 or more solutes in opposite directions

120

What are the 4 primary tissue types?

Epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous

121

What is the matrix made of?

ECF make of fibrous proteins and ground substance

122

What is ground substance made of?

Clear gel

123

What is simple stratified tissue?

Every cell touches basement membrane

124

What is stratified tissue?

2-20 layers on top of each other

125

What are pseudo-stratified tissues?

All cells touch basement membrane

126

What is the most widespread epithelium in body?

Stratified

127

What is keratin?

Durable, waterproof protein found in skin

128

What are the 8 functions of connective tissue?

Binding of organs, support, physical protection, immune protection, movement, storage, hear production, and transport

129

What is the difference between FCT and other connective tissues?

Fibers in structure

130

What are fibroblasts?

Found in FCT and produce fibers

131

What are macrophages?

Found in FCT and are large phagocytes

132

What are leukocytes?

Found in FCT and are white blood cells

133

What are plasma cells?

Found in FCT and produce antibodies?

134

What are mast cells?

Found in FCT and secrete heparin and histamine

135

What are adipocytes?

Found in FCT and are fat cells

136

What are collagenious fibers?

Made of collagen

137

What are reticular fibers?

Thin collagen fibers with glycoprotein

138

What are elastic fibers?

Made of elastin proteins