Flashcards in Exam Review Deck (139):
What are the 3 subatomic particles and their charges?
What is matter?
Anything that takes up space and has mass
What is an atom?
Particles so small they are indivisible
What is a molecule?
Chemical particles composed of 2 or more atoms
What are the 3 electron shells?
1 -> 2
2 -> 8
3 -> 18
How do you calculate the weight of a molecule?
Sum of atomic weights
What is a mole?
Equivalent to avagadros number, periodic table atomic mass is in grams per mol
What 3 elements make up most of the human body?
Oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen
What is an ion?
Charged particle with unequal number of protons and electrons
What is a cation?
What is an anion?
What is an isotope?
Differ in number of neurons the atom contains
What is free radical?
Odd number of electrons that want to become stable
What is an electrolyte?
Salts that ionize water
What are the 3 atomic bonds?
Covalent, ionic, and hydrogen
What is a covalent bond?
Forms by sharing electrons
What is an ionic bond?
Attraction of cation to anion
What is a hydrogen bond?
Weak attractive between slightly positive hydrogen and slightly negative oxygen
What is a polar covalent bond?
Electrons shared unequally
What is a Nonpolar covalent bond?
Electrons shared equally
What are the 7 properties of water?
Polarity, solvency, adhesion, cohesion, surface tension, thermal stability, and chemical reactivity
What is polarity?
Properties of water that support life
What is solvency?
Ability to dissolve other chemicals
What is adhesion?
Tendency to cling substances together
What is cohesion?
Tendency of a substance to cling to itself
What is surface tension?
Surface film on water
What is thermal stability?
Takes a lot of heat to change phases
What is chemical reactivity?
Able to ionize other substances to become ionized
What does hydrophobic mean?
Doesn't like water
What does hydrophilic mean?
What does ampiphillic mean?
Both hydrophobic and hydrophilic parts
What's the difference between a calorie and a Calorie?
calorie- heat needed to raise 1 g of water 1 degree Celsius
Calorie- 1000 calories
What is suspension?
Has large particles mixed in a solvent
Ex: blood cells in blood plasma
What is a colloid?
A mixture of larger particles in a solvent
Ex: albumin in plasma
What is a solution?
Solute mixed with a solvent
What is a solute?
Substances that dissolve
What is a solvent?
Substances that does the dissolving
What is an acid?
A proton donor
What is a base?
A proton acceptor
What happens when an acid and base are mixed?
What is the pH of water?
What is the pH of blood?
What is a buffer?
Resist changes in pH
What are the 3 chemical reactions?
What is an organic compound?
Compounds containing carbon
What are the 4 organic compounds?
Carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
What are foods composed of carbs?
Sugars and starches
What are elements in carbs?
Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
What's a monosaccharides generic formula?
What are fatty acids?
Chain of 24 carbon atoms with a carboxyl and methyl group at the ends
What is a saturated fatty acid?
Maximum amount of hydrogens
What is an unsaturated fatty acid?
Has double bonds
What is a triglyceride?
3 fatty acids bonded to a glycerol
What is a steroid?
Lipid with carbon atoms arranged in 4 rings
Whah molecules does the body use to make steroid hormones?
What's a phospholipid?
Triglyceride with a phosphate group
How many amino acids are in the human body?
What is a peptide?
2 or more amino acids joined by peptide bonds
What is a polypeptide?
More than 15 amino acids
What is primary structure?
Chain of amino acids
What is tertiary structure?
Beta pleated sheets
What is quarternary structure?
2 or more polypeptide chains
What is conformation?
3D shape crucial to function
What is denaturation?
Change that destroys a function
What's a conjugated protein?
Containing a non amino acid moiety
What are the 7 functions of proteins?
Structure, communication, membrane transport, catalysis, recognition and protection, movement, cell adhesion
What is an enzyme?
Proteins that are catalysts. Speed up reactions
What is a substrate?
Binds to an enzyme and is the site it acts upon
How do enzymes speed up reactions?
Lowers activation energy
What are cofactors?
Non protein partners and changes enzymes shape
What are coenzymes?
What is the metabolic pathway?
chain of reactions
What are the sub units of nucleic acids?
DNA and RNA
What 3 things make up a nucleotide?
Nitrogenous base, sugarcane and phosphate group
What are the structural differences in DNA and RNA?
DNA is double stranded RNA is single stranded and smaller
What are the 5 points of the cell theory of life?
All organisms are composed of cells. Cell is simplest structural unit of life. Cellular activity relates structures and functions. Cells come from other cells. Cells have many similarities
What is ATP?
Adenosine triphosphate and it is the most important energy molecule
Why are cells microscopic?
Small surface area
What is cytosol?
Gel like solution where organelles and cytoskeleton is embedded
What is cytoplasm?
Contents of cell between plasma membrane and nuclear envelope
What are integrated proteins?
Do not go through membrane
What are 3 functions of the plasma membrane?
Defines boundaries, controls interactions, controls pathways of cell
What are peripheral proteins?
Go through plasma membrane
What are the 7 functions of membrane proteins?
Receptors, messenger, enzymes, ion channels, carriers, glycoproteins, and holding cells together
What is cilia?
Hair like processes, move materials
What is flagella?
Whip like structures
What are microvilli?
Extensions that add surface area
What is the function of the nucleus?
Brain of cell
What surrounds the nucleus?
What is the endoplasmic reticulum function?
Synthesizes steroids, lipids, detox, and creates membranes
What is the rough ER?
Flattened sacs with ribosomes
What does the rough ER do?
Makes steroids and lipids, detoxifies alcohol, manufactures membranes
What does the smooth ER do?
Detox and stores calcium in muscle cells
What do ribosomes?
Translates mRNA to protein
Function of Golgi apparatus?
Packages protons and glycoproteins and forms vesicles and lysosomes
What are lysosomes?
Package of enzymes
What is autodigestion?
Digestion of worn out organelles
What is apoptosis?
Programmed cell death
What is the function of mitochondria?
What are christae?
Double unit membrane inside mitochondria
What is the matrix?
Space between christae
How many ATP are made during the breakdown of glucose?
What is the function of a centriole?
What is the function of the cytoskeleton?
Support and shape of cell
What structures make up the cytoskeleton? (3)
How does a cell change it's shape?
What is diffusion?
Movement from high concentration to low concentration
What is osmosis?
Diffusion of water down a concentration gradient
What does hypertonic mean?
What does hypotonic mean?
Gives up water
What does isotonic mean?
Water flows in and out
What is carrier mediated transport?
Proteins that carry solutes across membrane
What is facilitated transport?
Transport solute down a gradient
What is active transport?
Transport of solute up a gradient
What is endocytosis?
Taking into cell
What is exocytosis?
Releasing outside of cell
What is phagocytosis?
Eating of cells
What is pinocytosis?
What is cotransport?
2 or more solutes carried in the same direction
Carry 2 or more solutes in opposite directions
What are the 4 primary tissue types?
Epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous
What is the matrix made of?
ECF make of fibrous proteins and ground substance
What is ground substance made of?
What is simple stratified tissue?
Every cell touches basement membrane
What is stratified tissue?
2-20 layers on top of each other
What are pseudo-stratified tissues?
All cells touch basement membrane
What is the most widespread epithelium in body?
What is keratin?
Durable, waterproof protein found in skin
What are the 8 functions of connective tissue?
Binding of organs, support, physical protection, immune protection, movement, storage, hear production, and transport
What is the difference between FCT and other connective tissues?
Fibers in structure
What are fibroblasts?
Found in FCT and produce fibers
What are macrophages?
Found in FCT and are large phagocytes
What are leukocytes?
Found in FCT and are white blood cells
What are plasma cells?
Found in FCT and produce antibodies?
What are mast cells?
Found in FCT and secrete heparin and histamine
What are adipocytes?
Found in FCT and are fat cells
What are collagenious fibers?
Made of collagen
What are reticular fibers?
Thin collagen fibers with glycoprotein