Flashcards in exam study Deck (54):
name some boundaries from a prime lamb enterprise
amount of land
name some outputs from a prime lamb enterprise
name some processes from a prime lamb enterprise
name some inputs to a prime lamb enterprise
Describe the difference between plants common name and its botanical name
Botanical name always has 2 words the first being its genus which is the group the plant is from and the second word is its species name. A common name however is what the plant is most commonly called in everyday use and a plant may have more than one common name.
What is the genus name and what is the species name?
The genus name is the first word in the botanical name and is the general group/type of plant. The species name is the second word in the botanical name and is used to label the particular plant it is.
What language are all the plant Botanical Names based on and why?
Latin because the name must show the genus and species name and latin was earlier considered the language of scholars meaning that just hearing the scientific name would give you idea of what it is without knowing what the organism is.
Why do we use classification keys?
to categorise living organisms and sort them into groups with similar features. Also so we can find out more about the organism by its group and be able to assist them
Are two organisms with the same genus or two with the same family more likely to be similar?
Organisms with the same genus are more likely to be similar than those just of the same family. Two organisms with just the same genus name are more similar than those with just the same species name as they also need the same genus name to be more alike.
What is the most ideal pH range for plants and why?
Most plants prefer a 6-7 pH because they prefer slightly acidic soil. But this can vary depending on the plant type, nutrient requirements and its ability to tolerate different pH levels.
Name 4 descriptive items that would be necessary to find out about a plant before you select it to plant in a location
pH of soil, soil type, sunlight, wind, salt spray tolerance, frost tolerance, drainage, drought tolerance
What effect does radiation have on nutrient uptake?
Radiation causes water to do transpiration and bring the water up the roots of the trees, the nutrients are dissolved in the water and will be brought up by the radiation
What effect does radiation have on wind production?
Radiation causes hot and cold spots and creates wind without radiation there would be no wind
Explain the steps involved in correctly pressing a plant
1. Pick your flower by cutting it at the stem
2. Remove any leaves or stems from the from and back to make it flat
3. Place the flower in a book between to pages of newspaper (newspaper will absorb the moisture)
4. Close the book and put more books or a weight on top
5. For the first few days change the newspaper every day and then continue to change every couple of days (this will stop the flowers from getting mouldy)
6. After 2-3 weeks remove the pressed plant carefully from the book
Define consumers and give 3 examples
Organisms which cannot create their own energy supplies and derive it from other sources e.g. sheep, chickens and lions
Define producers and give 3 examples
Organism that make their own energy supplies. Plants during photosynthesis make complex organic molecules from simple compounds. e.g. plants, seaweed and phytoplankton
Define decomposers and give 3 examples
Organisms which break down plant and animal remains to derive their energy requirements e.g. fungi, earthworms and snails
What is the difference between a food web and a food chain?
A food chain shows the movement of nutrients and energy within a community. All chains start with a plant and rarely have more than 4 links. A food web however shows how different food chains interact and the relationships of different organisms. Food webs help provide natural systems with their stability and balance
What are the three types of consumers?
herbivores, carnivores and omnivores
Why does a food chain rarely go beyond four levels?
Because 90% of the energy is lost each time it goes up one in the chain. This energy is lost through cell repair, movement, growth and heat and will run out after 4 levels
Compare an agricultural system and natural system.
- The flow of energy and nutrients in a natural system is a closed system which mean no matter leaves the system whereas an agricultural system is an open system which means matter and energy does leave the system as saleable products
- In a natural system there is a large number and great variety of organisms whereas in an agricultural system there is a limited number and many introduced species
- A natural system is self regulated and well balanced whereas an agricultural system is not balanced and has artificial chemicals used to control weeds, pests and diseases.
Electromagnetic waves produced by the sun
What effect does radiation have on photosynthesis?
Without radiation there would be no photosynthesis as we need sunlight to give energy to plants
What effect does radiation have on reproduction?
Some animals won't reproduce till the weather conditions are right and radiation effects this
What effect does radiation have on evaporation?
Without sunlight and radiation there would be no evaporation or cloud dorms
Why is it important to know the pH of a soil before you plant a plant?
Because different plants tolerate different pH levels and have particular nutrient requirements
What is the order from least related to more closely related on the classification levels
What does the pH scale mean?
It measures the acidity or alkalinity of soil. The scale ranges from 1-14, 7 being the middle and neutral, 1-6 is acidic and 8-12 is alkaline.
How do you increase a soils pH and make it more alkaline/basic?
Add calcium carbonate (lime)
How do you decrease a soils pH and make it more acidic?
Add sulphur (S)
What effect doe the pH of a soil have on the nutrient availability?
pH can limit the availability of certain elements depending where on the scale. A pH of 4-7 has a high nutrient availability of copper, zinc, boron, manganese and iron whereas a pH of 7-9 has a high nutrient availability of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulphur and calcium. Different plants need different nutrients and this is why different plants need different pH types
Explain the steps in carrying out the pH test on soil
1. Mix a few drops of the indicator liquid with the soil sample to make a paste
2. Dust the paste with barium sulphate
3. Allow a minute or two for the new colour in the powder to emerge
4. Read off the pH level by comparing with the pH colour chart
Name the 3 main components of soil
Minerals from the rocks in the soil, organic matter which is the remains of plants and animals who use the soil, and living organisms that live in the soil
Why can soils with many small pores hold more water than soils with many large holes? Give an example of a soil
Soils with many small pores such as clay can hold more water than soils with many large holes because of their small particles which are close together. This stops water from running through the soil and results in bad drainage. Sand however has much larger particles resulting in good drainage and does not hold much water
What is the difference between clay loam and clay soil?
Clay loam has larger particles and better drainage than clay soil
What is the difference between sandy loam and sandy soil?
Sandy loam has smaller particles and poorer drainage than sandy soil
How can a farmer improve soil structure?
Fertiliser, increasing soil depth via mounding, reducing soils hardness to increase the root depth, and avoiding rapid wetting and drying of the soil
How can a farmer destroy soil structure?
Compacting the soil by constantly driving on the soil and squashing air particles and erosion
What is a business proposal?
Often include the steps involved in producing and selling what a business wants to sell. It is a written offer from the seller to a prospective buyer
What is a production plan?
Includes the steps needed to achieve the goals set by a business in the order they need to do them in
What is a budget?
An estimate of income and expenditure for a set period of time
What are the sustainability goals?
Goals set by the business from the beginning of things they would like to do to improve the sustainability of their business. E.g. replace garden bed soil with new soil and fertiliser
What is a marketing plan?
A document that outlines a companies advertising and marketing efforts for the coming year. How a business will make people aware of what they are selling and for how much
How do crop rotations benefit a farm system?
It gives various nutrients to the soil and replenishes the nitrogen through the use of green manure in sequence with other crops
Explain how energy is obtained and lost in an agricultural system, and how do farmers combat this loss?
Energy from the sun is converted into different forms in the the food chain and at each stage is lost and not recycled. Nutrients in a natural system are recycled but in an agricultural system they are removed by harvesting and selling. As a result of this huge loss of energy and nutrients farmers have to use artificial sources of nutrients to fill in this loss such as fertiliser.
Name some examples of mismanagement of a farm system
- loss of natural areas and species from clearing the land
- destroying non-renewable resources such as topsoil
- Using the land beyond its capabilities and exploiting its resources
a set of interacting units that react with themselves and the non-living environment
the raw materials used to make a product e.g. seed, fertiliser, fuel, labour and management
stages and alterations that the raw materials must undergo to convert them into the desired product e.g. buying, shearing and drenching
the final products of of the farm e.g. wool, meat, milk and fruit
the limitations of the system e.g. amount of land available, climate, topography, fertility, money, and technology
A biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment
How does DDT disrupt food webs and create secondary pests?
Some of the sprayed chemical reaches a destination other than their target species. Run off can carry them to other fields and grazing areas that can potentially affect other species. DDT consumed by one organism can go through a whole food chain if this organism is at the bottom. Secondary pests are those that have acquired a resistance to pesticide and can become major pests and alter the food chain.