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Flashcards in Exam Two Deck (59):
1

Cells provide ___________

the basic structural and functional unit for living organisms.

2

Cell theory

1.) The cell is the fundamental structure and functional unit in living organisms.
2.) All cells come from pre-existing cell by cell division
3.) The activity of an organism depends on the total activity of its cell

3

The number of cells in an organism can vary from __ to ___ depending on the size of the organisms

1 to millions

4

Cells can be thought of in somewhat the same way we think of a ______________

manufacturing plant

5

Plasma membrane structure:

phospholipid bilayer
transport and receptor proteins
cholesterol (a steroid)

6

Plasma membrane function:

control what enters and leaves the cell
communication

7

Cell wall (in plants, fungi and bacteria) structure:

no membrane; carbohydrate fibers in a carbohydrate or protein matrix

8

Cell wall (in plants, fungi and bacteria) function:

protections, structural support

9

Cilia and Flagella (mostly in animals) structure:

extension of the plasma membrane containing a complex of proteins that support and move the structure

10

Cilia and Flagella (mostly in animals) function:

move the cell through fluid (cilia and flagella) or move fluid past the cell (cilia)

11

What are the structures of the nucleus?

nuclear membrane, chromosomes/chromatin, nucleolus, structures for transcribing genetic info into RNA

12

Nuclear membrane

double layered membrane surrounding the nucleus

13

Chromosomes/chromatin

contains genetic information in the form of DNA that provides the blueprints for proteins

14

What does it mean to transcribe genetic information into RNA?

1.) to make a full written or typewritten copy of (dictated material, for example)
2.) to transfer (information) from one recording and storing system to another

15

What is the cytoplasm?

consists of all the fluid and structures within the cell that are not a part of the nucleus

16

What are the structures of the cytoplasm?

endoplasmic reticulum, vacuoles/ vesicles, mitochondria, chloroplasts, cytoskeleton

17

(Endoplasmic Reticulum) Rough ER structure:

network of branching sacs (membranes), ribosomes present

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(Endoplasmic Reticulum) Rough ER function:

produce proteins that will be used to carry messages, act as membrane pumps, act as enzymes, or provide structure

19

(Endoplasmic Reticulum) Smooth ER structure:

network of branching sacs (membranes), no ribosomes present

20

(Endoplasmic Reticulum) Smooth ER function:

synthesize lipids needed by the cell, break down lipids that are poisonous to the cell, manufacture phospholipids for the plasma membrane, reservoir for calcium

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(Endoplasmic Reticulum) Golgi Apparatus structure:

flattened membranous sacs

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(Endoplasmic Reticulum) Golgi Appartatus function:

package and transport proteins from the rough ER toward the plasma membrane

23

Vacuoles/ Vesicles structure:

membranous sacs

24

Vacuoles/ Vesicles functions:

storage
transportation of materials within the cell

25

Mitochondria structure:

double membrane

26

Mitochondria function:

power station for the cell. Synthesizes ATP

27

Chloroplasts (in plants) structure:

double membrane

28

Chloroplasts (in plants) function:

production of ATP and sugars via photosynthesis

29

Cytoskeleton structure:

system of protein fibers

30

Cytoskeleton function:

gives the cell shape and structural stability, cell movement, movement of materials within a cell

31

What are higher levels of organization within an organism?

Tissues, organs, organ systems

32

Definition of tissues

a group of similar cells (together with their cell product) specialized for performing a common function)

33

Four major types of tissues

epithelial tissues, connective tissue, muscle tissue, nervous tissue

34

Epithelial Tissue

form surface covering that protects the body, and secretes and absorbs selected substances

35

Connective Tissue

forms structures that support the body and hold the body together (bone, cartilage, adipose tissue, ligaments and tendons)

36

Muscle Tissue

enables movement

37

Nervous Tissue

enables fast, specific communication between cells of the body using electrical signals

38

What are organs

a group of tissues that form an identifiable structural unit and that work together to perform a specific function

39

What are organ systems

a group of organs and tissues that work together to perform a range of functions related to an important task

40

Integumentary system

structures: skin, hair, nails
functions: external body covering, protects internal structures, and has pain and pressure receptors for sensing the external environment
relevant doctors: dermatologists

41

Skeletal system

major structures: bones, joints
major functions: provides structural protection and support for internal organs, stores nutrients, produces blood cells, and provides the framework the muscles use to cause movement
relevant doctors: orthopedic surgeons

42

Muscular system

major structures: skeletal muscles
major functions: locomotion, manipulation of the environment, maintenance of posture, production of body heat

43

Nervous system

major structures: brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory receptors
major functions: senses and processes information from the external and external environment of the body, responds to information by activating appropriate muscles and glands
relevant doctors: neurologists, psychiatrists

44

Endocrine system

major structures: pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid, adrenal gland, pancreas, ovaries in females, testes in males
major functions: secretes hormones that regulates metabolism, growth, and reproduction
relevant doctors: endocrinologists

45

Cardiovascular system

major structures: heart, blood vessels
major functions: transport oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, and hormones from one place to another within the body
relevant doctors: cardiologists, cardiovascular surgeons

46

Lymphatic/ Immune system

major structures: lymph nodes, spleen, red bone marrow, and thymus
major functions: pick up fluid leaded from the blood vessels and return it to the blood, monitor the lymph and remove debris and foreign substances
relevant doctors: immunologists, allergists

47

Respiratory system

major structures: nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
major functions: obtain oxygen for the body from the environment, remove carbon dioxide from the body and release it to the environment
relevant doctors: pulmonologists

48

Digestive system

major structures: mouth, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, anus, liver, pancreas
major functions: break down food into absorbable molecules, absorb nutrients into the blood stream for distribution throughout the body, eliminate indigestible material as feces
relevant doctors: gastrologists, gastroenterologists

49

Urinary system

major structures: kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra
major functions: eliminate nitrogenous waste from the blood; regulate water, salts, and pH of the blood
relevant doctors: urologists, urogynecologists, nephrologists

50

Reproductive system

see notes

51

unicellular organisms

the entire organism is just a single cell, can carry out all the functions necessary to live by itself, specialized organelles enable a wide variety of life strategies , may live colonially

52

Colony may be nothing more than a ______________ that in some way benefit from living together

group of independent cells

53

Colony may involve specialization of the cells in the colony

blurs the distinction between unicellular organisms and multicellular organisms
however, individual cells retain the ability to live independantly of the colony

54

Multicellular organisms (aspects)

cells generally dependent on each other for their survival, cell function highly differentiated/specialized, complexity highly varied

55

Multicellular organisms without tissues, organs, or body cavity

phylum porifera: sponges

56

multicellular organisms with tissues but no organs or body cavity

phylum cnidaria: corals, sea anemones, jellyfish

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multicellular organisms with tissues and organs but no body cavity

acoelomates

58

multicellular organisms with tissues, organs, and a false body cavity

pseudocoelomates

59

multicellular oganisms with tissues, organs, and a body cavity

eucoelomates