Excretory Systems (8.13) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Excretory Systems (8.13) Deck (29):
1

This is the continuous control of water and solute concentrations within an organism. (A part of homeostasis)

osmoregulation

2

Regulation occurs across a ________ __________ (membrane).

transport epithelium

3

mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish

Nephridia

4

annelids

Metanephridia

5

Insects

Malpighian tubules

6

Crustaceans

Green glands

7

Platyhelminthes

flame cells

8

Nephridia, Metanephridia, Malpighian tubules, Green glands, and flame cells are all examples of

transport epithelium

9

transport epithelium help in the removal of ___________ ______. (Ammonia is created from using amino acids for Energy production.)

nitrogenous waste

10

This form requires lots of water to dispose. (Fish and other aquatic invertebrates)

Ammonia

11

This form requires moderate amounts of water in disposal – Good for dry land. (Evolution of Mammals & Amphibians.) This form combines ammonia and carbon dioxide together. (Two waste products as one.)

Urea

12

This form requires very little water. – Good for desert climates. (Evolution of Birds and reptiles.) Ammonia and carbon dioxide in a paste like state. (Car paints? It is an acid… so it destroys them.)

Uric Acid

13

Adaptations for Water Conservation (5)

Keratinized skin (Seen in reptiles, birds, and mammals.)(Related to the formation of PANGEA.)
Exoskeleton (Seen by insects – These were the first animals on land.)
Being nocturnal. (Animals move around at night to avoid possible dehydration by the sun.)(Desert animals.)
Storage cells or vacuoles to store extra water. (Desert animals- camels: plants – central vacuole.)
Waxy Cuticle –Seen on plant leaf surfaces.

14

(This is achieved by the “liquid” portion of blood being separated from the blood cells and platelets.)
The liquid portion now becomes “filtrate” upon leaving the blood vessel.
The collected filtrate is then filtered, to remove nitrogenous waste and other excess molecules.

Filtrate

15

(This is the reabsorbing of “good materials” from the filtrate – leaving “bad” behind.)
Reabsorption collects all or most of the “good materials” and puts them back in the blood.
This leaves behind the “bad materials” to be collected and disposed of in the form of Urine.

Tubular reabsorption

16

Osmoregulation in Mammals – This occurs in the _______. (Your kidneys are a collection of 1 million nephrons per kidney.)

Kidneys

17

This blood vessel brings “polluted” blood into the kidneys.

Renal artery

18

This blood vessel takes “purified” blood away from the kidneys.

Renal Vein

19

This is the outer part of the kidney where the nephrons are located. (Site of urine production.)

Renal Cortex

20

This is the middle part of the kidney. (Site of urine collection from the nephrons.)

Renal Medula

21

These are the structures where blood is actually “purified”.

Nephrons

22

These are where urine is collected from the nephrons.
Tubules converge to create the Renal Pyramids (These are triangular shaped structures in the medulla.) All tubules lead to the Renal Pelvis.

Collection Tubules

23

This is the main collection area (in the center of the kidney) for the collection tubes.

Renal Pelvis

24

These are the extensions (inlets) off the central pelvis that connect to the pyramids.

Calyxs

25

These two tubes take the urine from the kidneys to the bladder for storage until release.

Ureter

26

This is the expandable urine storage organ. (It is composed of transitional epithelium.)

Bladder

27

This is the tube leading from the bladder to outside of body. (It is the urinating tube.) (Urine should be yellowish to clear... it depends on the amount of water to be released.)

Urethra

28

There is too much sugar in the blood; the body is trying to get rid of it in the urine.

Diabetes (means “Sweet Urine”)

29

Condition leads to too much ammonia and bile in the blood causing Jaundice (yellowing) of skin.
1. Most common causes is alcoholism.

Cirrhosis of Liver