Exercise 36 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exercise 36 Deck (24):
1

Respiratory System

Supplies the body with oxygen, disposes of CO2

2

Pulmonary Ventilation

Breathing; movement of air into and out of lungs

3

External Respiration

Gas exchange between the blood and the air filled chambers of the lungs

4

Internal Respiration

Exchange of gases between systemic blood and tissue cells

5

Tidal Volume

500 ml
Amount of air inhaled or exhaled with each breath under resting conditions

6

Vital Capacity

4800 ml
VC = TV + IRV + ERV
Maximum amount of air that can be expired after a maximum inspiratory effort

7

Inspiratory Reserve Volume

3100 ml
Amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal tidal volume inspiration

8

Expiratory Reserve Volume

1200 ml
Amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal tidal volume expiration

9

Residual Volume

1200 ml
Amount of air remaining in the lungs after a forced expiration

10

Minute Respiratory Volume

MRV = TV x respirations/min

11

Forced Vital Capacity

Measures the amount of gas expelled when the subject takes the deepest possible breath and then exhales forcefully and rapidly

Reduced in those with restrictive pulmonary disease

12

Forced Expiratory Volume

Involves same testing procedure as FVC, but it looks at the percentage of vital capacity that is exhaled during specific time intervals of the FVC test

FEV1 is low in those with obstructive disease

13

How does COPD affect ERV?

ERV reduced in individuals with COPD because COPD reduces the elasticity of lungs

14

Obstructive Disorders

Airway resistance increased
Examples: chronic bronchitis and asthma

15

Restrictive Disorders

Total lung capacity declines
Examples: polio and tuberculosis

16

Epithelium of the nasal cavity?

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

17

Epithelium of the nasopharynx?

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

18

Epithelium of the oropharynx?

Stratified squamous epithelium

19

Epithelium of the laryngopharynx?

Stratified squamous epithelium

20

Epithelium of the larynx?

Stratified squamous (superior to vocal folds)
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar (inferior to vocal folds)

21

What type of cartilage makes up the following:
Thyroid
Cricoid
Arytenoid
Corniculate
Cuneiform

Hyaline

22

Cartilage of the epiglottis?

Elastic

23

Epithelium of the trachea?

Ciliated, mucus-secreting, pseudostratified columnar epithelium

24

What is the pattern of cartilage in bronchi/bronchioles?

Bronchi have cartilaginous reinforcements.
Bronchioles - all but the smallest have cartilaginous reinforcements in their walls. As respiratory tubes get smaller and smaller, cartilage in their walls decreases until it disappears, and smooth muscle increases.