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Flashcards in Exercise Physiology Deck (115):
1

what is homeostasis?

dynamic constancy and 'normal' internal environment

-control systems of the body
-nature of the control systems

2

what are three examples of a nature of the control system

negative feedback
positive feedback
gain of a control system

3

what variable is manipulated by the researcher

independent ( on x- axis)

4

what is stead state

physiological variable is unchanging, but not necessarily 'normal'
balance between demands placed on the body and the body's response to those demands (ex. body temp during exercise)

5

what is intracellular control systems

-protein breakdown and synthesis
-energy production
-maintenance of stored nutrients

6

what is organ systems

pulmonary and circulatory systems
-replenish oxygen and remove carbon dioxide

7

what is two of the body's control systems

intracellular control systems
organ systems

8

what non-biological control system can the body's systems be compared to?

a thermostat

9

what is a biological control system?

series of interconnected components that maintain a physical r chemical parameter at a near constant value

10

what are the three components of a biological control system?

sensor or receptor
control center
effector

11

what is a senor

detects changes in a variable

12

what is a control center?

assesses input and initiates response

13

what is a effector

changes internal environment back to normal

14

what is a negative feedback system?

response reverse the initial disturbance in homeostasis
most control systems work via negative feedback

15

what is a positive feedback system

response increases the original stimulus
example: childbirth

16

what is a gain of a controls system?

degree to which a control system maintains homeostasis. system with large gain is more capable of maintaining homeostasis than system with low gain. example: pulmonary and cardiovascular systems have large gains

17

what are three examples of homeostatic control?

regulation of body temperature
regulation of blood glucose
regulation of cellular homeostasis

18

how does the body regulate body temperature

thermal receptors, sends message to brain the response y skin blood vessels and sweat glands regulate temp

19

how does the body regulate blood glucose

requires the hormone insulin, diabetes (failure of blood glucose control system)

20

how does the body regulate the cellular homeostasis

stress proteins (heat shock proteins)
-repair damaged proteins to restore homeostasis in response to changes in temperature, pH and free radicals

21

what would a failure of any component of a control system result in a disturbance of homeostasis

disease

22

5.1% of adult population suffers from ________

type 2 diabetes

23

cells synthesize 'stress proteins' when ________ is disrupted

homeostasis
ex. heat shock proteins ( chaperone and repair functions)

24

Hsp90 is part of a family of proteins known as _______ which are solely dedicated to helping other proteins fold and assume their proper functions

chaperones

25

what is an example of a heat shock protein

Hsp90

26

when Hsp90 is compromised the number of morphological changes increases, which lead to formation of inactive or abnormally active polypeptides (________ _________)

homeostasis is disrupted

27

does exercise disrupt homeostasis

yes in many ways

28

what is metabolism

sum of all chemical reactions that occur in the body

29

what are the two types of metabolism

anabolic reaction
catabolic reaction

30

what is anabolic reaction

synthesis of molecules

31

what is catabolic reaction

breakdown of molecules

32

what is bioenergetics

converting foodstuffs (fats, protein, carbohydrates) into energy

33

what is a cell membrane

semipermeable membrane that separates the cell from the extracellular environment (protection)

34

what is the nucleus

contains genes that regulate protein synthesis
-molecular biology

35

what is cytoplasm

-fluid portion of cell
-contains organelles (mitochondria)

36

what are the three major parts of a cell

cell membrane
nucleus
cytoplasm

37

what are three cellular chemical reactions

endergonic reactions
exergonic reactions
coupled reactions

38

what is endergonic reactions

require energy to be added
endothermic

39

what is exergonic reactions

release energy
exothermic
(in a graph looks like stairs)

40

what is couples reactions

liberation of energy in an exergonic reaction drives an endergonic reaction

41

the energy given off by exergonic reaction powers the _______ reaction in an ______ reaction

endergonic
coupled

42

what is oxidation

removing an electron

43

what is reduction

addition of electron

44

oxidation and reduction are always _______ reactions

coupled

45

oxidation-reduction reaction often involved the transfer of ______ atoms rather than free electrons

hydrogen

46

a molecule that loses a hydrogen also loses an electron and therefore is _______

oxidized

47

what are the two important components in a oxidation-reduction reaction

NAD and FAD

48

NAH is an _______ agent

oxidizing

49

NADH is a _____ agent

reducing

50

catalysts regulate ____ of reactions

speed
-lower the energy of activation

51

what are two factors that regulate enzyme activity

temperature
pH

52

how would you describe an interact with specific substrates

lock and key model

53

damaged cells release enzymes into the blood which can indicate what?

enzymes levels in blood indicate disease or tissue damage

54

what is a diagnostic application of enzyme blood levels

elevated lactate dehydrogenase or creatine kinase in the blood may indicate a myocardial infarction

55

what are the 6 classification of enzymes

-oxidoreductases
-transferases
-hydrolases
-lyases
-isomerases
-ligases

56

what is oxidoreductases

catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions

57

what is transferases

transfer elements of one molecule to another

58

what is hydrolases

cleave bonds by adding water

59

what is lyases

groups of elements are removed to forma double bond or added to a double bone

60

what is isomerases

rearrangement of the structure of molecules

61

what is ligases

catalyze bond formation between substrate molecules

62

what are two factors that will alter enzyme activity

temperature
pH

63

how does temperature alter enzyme activity

-small rise in body temperature increases enzyme activity
-exercises results in increased body temperature

64

how does pH alter enzyme activity

-changes in pH reduces enzyme activity
-lactic acid produced during exercise

65

what are two carbohydrates

glucose
glycogen

66

what does glycogen do?

-storage form of glucose in liver and muscle
*synthesized by enzyme glycogen synthase
-glycogenolysis
*breakdown of glycogen to glucose

67

what are the three fats

fatty acids
phospholipids
steroids

68

what does a fatty acid do

-primary type of fat used by the muscle
-triglycerides
-storage form of fat in muscle and adipose tissue
-breaks down into glycerol and fatty acids

69

what does phospholipids do?

not used as energy source

70

What do steroids do?

derived from cholesterol
needed to synthesize sex hormones

71

what are proteins composed of?

amino acids

72

what is gluconeogenesis

protein being converted to glucose in the liver

73

is protein a primary energy source during exercise?

no

74

glucose is stored in animal cells as a ________ called glycogen

polysaccharide

75

what does ATP stand for

adenosine triphosphate

76

what consists of ATP

adenine
ribose
three linked phosphates

77

what are the three stages of ATP formation

- phosphocreatine (PC) breakdown
-degeneration of glucose and glycogen (glycolysis)
-oxidative formation of ATP

78

what are two facts about anaerobic pathways

- do no involve O2
-PC (phosphocreatine) breakdown and glycolysis

79

what are two facts about aerobic pathways

-require O2
- oxidative phosphorylation

80

what are the two anaerobic ATP productions

ATP-PC system
glycolysis

81

what is the ATP-PC system

immediate source of ATP
PC + ADP -----> ATP + C
creatine kinase

82

what is glycolysis

-glucose--> pyruvic acid or 2 lactic acid
-energy investment phase (requires 2 ATP)
-energy generation phase (produce: 4 ATP, 2 NADH and 2 pyruvate or 2 lactate)

83

what does the energy generation phase of glycolysis produce?

4 ATP
2 NADH
2 pyruvate or 2 lactate

84

does creatine supplementation improve exercise performance?

-increase muscle PC (phosphocreatine) stores
-improves short term high intensity
-increased strength and fat-free mass with resistance training

85

does creatine supplementation appear to pose health risks?

no

86

depletion of _____ may limit short-term, high intensity exercise

phosphocreatine

87

_____ is the conjugated base of lactic acid

lactate

88

the ionization of lactic acid forms the conjugated base called _____

lactate

89

_______ id produced in glycolysis

lactic acid
- rapidly disassociates to lactate and H+

90

what are the two phases of glycolysis

1. energy investment phase
2. energy generation phase

91

what is requires during the energy investment phase

2 ATP

92

what is produced during the energy generation phase

4 ATP
2 NADH
2 pyruvate or 2 lactate

93

what are the transport hydrogen's and associated electrons during aerobic

to mitochondria for ATP generation

94

what are the transport hydrogen's and associated electrons during anaerobic

to convert pyruvic acid to lactic acid

95

what does NAD stand for

nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

96

what does FAD stand for

flavin adenine dinucleotide

97

NADH is the '_____' into the mitochondria

shuttle

98

NADH produced in glycolysis must be converted back to ____. and how

NAD
-by converting pyruvic acid to lactic acid
-by 'shuttling' H+ into the mitochondria

99

a specific transport system shuttles ___ across the mitochondrial membrane

H+

100

how do you concert pyruvic acid to lactic acid?

add two H+ to pyruvic acid

101

skeletal muscles produce _____ that is quickly converted to______

lactic acid
lactate

102

what are the three ways the muscles can produce ATP using 1 or a combination of

1. ATP-PC system
2. glycolysis
3. oxidative ATP production

103

what is the aerobic ATP production

krebs cycle( citric acid cycle / oxidative ATP production

104

what fat is used in aerobic metabolism

triglycerides--> glycerol and fatty acids
fatty acids---> acetyl- CoA (beta-oxidation)
-glycerol is not an important muscle fuel during exercise

105

what protein is used in aerobic metabolism

-broken down into amino acids
-converted to glucose, pyruvic acid, acetyl-CoA and krebs cycle intermediates

106

what is an aerobic ATP production

electron transport chain

107

where does oxidative phosphorylation occur?

mitochondria

108

during the electron transport chain electrons removed from NADH and FADH are passed along a series of carriers (________) to produce ATP

cytochromes

109

what does the electron transport chain produce?

each NADH produces 2.5 ATP
each FADH produces 1.5 ATP

110

what is the chemiosmotic hypothesis of ATP formation

electron transport chain results in pumping of H+ ions across inner mitochondrial membrane (H+ gradient)
-energy released to form ATP as H+ ions diffuse back across the membrane

111

the H+ from NADH and FADH in the electron transport chain is accepted by ___ to form ____

O2
water

112

beta oxidation is the process of converting ______ to _______

fatty acids
acetyl- CoA

113

what enters the krebs cycle?

acetyl-CoA

114

activated fatty acid ( fatty acyl-CoA) into the mitochondrion, fatty acid 'chopped' into _____ fragments forming acetyl-CoA

2 carbon

115

how many ATP are produces from 1 glucose

32 ATP