Experimental Designs Part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Experimental Designs Part 2 Deck (26)
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1

What would threaten internal validity?

History
Reliability of Measures
Mortality
Maturation
Regression to the Mean

2

Unreliable measures can do what to a study?

Invalidate

3

What is another name for external validity?

Generalizability

4

An RCT only considers the average of what?

Group of Subjects

5

What is the most commonly used design in research?

Pretest-Posttest randomized experimental design

6

In the classic experiment subjects are evaluated before and after the intervention so that what between groups can be considered?

Pre-treatment Differences

7

What are test factors in pretreatment differences between groups as a covariate?

Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)

8

The ANCOVA test statistically removes the effect of what from the analysis?

Covariates

9

What compares with an alternate form of treatment?

2-group pretest-posttest design

10

What type of trial can groups not be compared after randomization because no pretest is used?

Post-test only randomization controlled trial

11

What is often used when several explanatory variables are involved in a study?

Factorial Design

12

Factorial design is useful to determine if any interaction exists between?

Variables

13

Explanatory variables are categorized as what?

Factors
Levels

14

When treatment is provided to one group, while the other group receives a placebo or alternate treatment is known as a?

Crossover Design

15

With crossover design, group assignments are switched at some point in time without who's knowledge?

Doctor or Subject

16

With crossover design each group receives what?

Active and alternate treatment

17

What are the crossover design limitations?

Carry-over effects
High Dropout rates
Treatment sequencing

18

The therapeutic effects of the first intervention continue during the second intervention in a cross over design is known as what?

Carry-Over Effects

19

There are high dropout rates in a crossover design because there are what?

2 or more periods of treatments

20

What is treatment sequencing?

When pt's respond differently when treatment 1 is given before treatment 2 that if the order is reversed

21

What design is similar to the randomized designs minus random assignment to groups?

Quasi-Experimental Designs

22

The lack of randomization is a major factor that makes claims about causality based on quasi-experimental evenidence what?

Doubtful

23

What designs don't utilize randomization or a comparison groups?

Non-Experimental

24

Non-experimental designs are not capable of determining what?

Effect of an intervention

25

Non-experimental designs include?

Survey and observational research
Case studies and case series

26

What design has large sample sizes, large time ranges, safety estimations, cost effectiveness and risk/benefit?

Cohort Studies