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Flashcards in Experiments Deck (11):
0

What are the pro's and con's of laboratory experiments?
What are some examples?

Pro's:
-high control of extraneous variables
-DV is precisely measured
-High repeatability
-Can reliably find cause+effect
Con's:
-Demand characteristics+social d
-Experimenter bias
-Low eco v
-Ethically questionable as deception

Examples:
-Milgram
-Loftus&Palmer

1

What are the pro's and con's of field experiments?
What are some examples?

Pro's:
-high eco v
-avoid d.c.
-learn a lot about behaviour under different conditions

Con's:
-confounding v
-cannot control or manipulate
-not easy to replicate results
-ethical issues= PPs no informed consent

Examples:
-Piliavin et al
-Reicher & Haslam

2

What are the pros and cons of natural (quasi) experiments?
What are some examples?

Pro's:
-more ethical
-high eco v
-allows research were IV can't be changed for practical/ethical issues

Con's:
-many extraneous v
-cannot draw conclusions on cause + effect
-cannot change conditions

Examples:
-Milgram

3

What is the difference between internal and external reliability?

Internal= how consistently a method measures within itself

External= how consistently results are in another situation outside the experiment
Test, re-test method

4

What are the different experiment designs?
What are the pros and cons?

INDEPENDENT
Pro's= no order effect
Less d.c
Con's= PP variables
Expensive

REPEATED
Pro's= smaller sample so cheaper
No PP variables

Con's= d.c
Order effects

MATCHED PAIRS
Pro's= no order effects
Lower individual differences
Con's= PP variables
Time consuming

5

What are situational variables and how can they be controlled?

Situational v= outside influences on experiment such as time of day and weather

-Standardisation: all method identical for every PP
-Counter balancing: changing order of tasks for each PP (ABBA method)
-Randomisation: layout decided by toss of a coin or other other random method

6

What are PP variables and how can they be reduced?

=individual differences between PPs e.g levels of intelligence, age, etc

-Repeated measures: eradicates all PP v
-Matched pairs: minimises PP v

7

What are experimenter variables and how can they be controlled?

=design or expectations for experiment could influence results

-Double blind
-inter rater reliability

8

What are the pros and cons of qualitative and quantitative date?

QUANTITATIVE=
Pro's: -easy to compare and analyse
- more reliable
Cons:- can't understand reasons for behaviour
-less valid

9

What are order effects? (Boredom and practice)

=effect that orders of tasks have on exp

BOREDOM= deterioration of PPs across task

PRACTICE= improvement across tasks

10

What are the different descriptive statistics?

1. Mean= the average of all the results
2. Mode= the most frequently occurring result
3. Median= the middle result when all the results are in ascending order
4. Range= the difference between the highest and lowest results