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Flashcards in export_bacteriology test 4 Deck (213):
1

Salmonella Choleraesuis

This salmonella serotype, host adapted to swine, is a cause of septicemia and pneumonia often w/o an associated enterocolitis

2

E. Coli

A toxigenic type of this agent has been labeled as an "attaching and effacing type

3

Salmonella Typhimurium

This salmonella is the most common serotype associated w/ disease in dogs in the US

4

Salmonella enteritidis

This salmonella serotype is the most common serotype isolated from poultry

5

Enterobacter aerogenes, E. Coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae

These bacterial species are known as coliforms (name 3)

6

Klebsiella pneumoniae

This agent, associated w/ wood product bedding, is a cause of mastitis in dairy cattle

7

Klebsiella pneumnoiae and E. Coli

These two agents are the most common gram negative pathogens causing endometritis in the horse

8

Yersinia pestis

This agent is the cause of Bubonic Plague in humans

9

E. Coli

This agent which produces Shiga toxin Stx2e causes a disease in Swine called edema disease

10

Salmonella Dublin

this salmonella serotype, host-adapted to cattle, is a cause of abortion in cattle

11

E Coli O157:H7

this agent which produces a toxin labeled STx1 causes a hemorrhagic diarrhea in humans

12

Salmonella Typhimurium

This Salmonella serotype, the most common serotype isolated from horses is a cause of acute enterocolitis w/ high death loss

13

Yersinia pestis

This agent is a CDC category A potential bio-terrorism agent

14

Yersinia pestis

A vaccine has been used to protect Black footed ferrets against this agent

15

Salmonella typhimurium
Salmonella enteritidis

These 2 salmonella serotypes are the most common serotypes associated w/ food poisoning in the US

16

Osmotic effects w/ subsequent malabsorption

Nutritional diarrhea in an orphaned foal fed milk replacer

17

Increased permeability of the intestinal wall

Colitis due to E. Coli serotype O157:H7 in humans

18

Active hypersecretionof water and electrolytes

Enterotoxigenic E. Coli in a neonatal calf

19

Malabsorption due to villous atrophy

Parvovirus infection in a young dog

20

Antiseptics

Chemicals used to prevent growth or destroy potential pathogens on body surfaces

21

R-factors

Term used for plasmids that carry resistance to antimicrobial agents

22

Pasteurize

Exposure of liquids used for food to heat to kill pathogenic bacteria

23

Gene cassettes

The term for the modular DNA sequences encoding for antimicrobial resistance that are carried and transferred b/t integrons

24

Biocontainment

A system of management practices directed at reducing the risk of spreading an existing disease b/t animals from different premises

25

Dihydrofolic acid

The use of this compound by bateria in purine synthesis is the target of the Trimethoprim type of anitmicrobials

26

Transcription

Term used to describe the process of DNA producing RNA

27

Sterilize

Term referring to the complete destruction of all microorganisms by physical means or chemical means

28

Synergistic antimicrobials

The term for antimicrobial action in which the use of two antimicrobials increases the level of activity above the level of activity for either one alone

29

Time dependent Antimicrobials

To be clinically effective, this type of antimicrobial must maintain a blood level that is greater than the MIC for duration of treatment

30

Ergosterol

This substance in the plasmalemma of fungi is the target of many of the antimicrobials that affect fungi

31

Minimum Bacterial Concentration

The concentration of an antimicrobial drug that will kill bacteria in vitro

32

Efflux pumps

Porins that would expel antimicrobials from the bacterial cell

33

Bacteriostatic antimicrobials

The term in disease treatment for the drug type that inhibits bacterial multiplication but bacteria are not killed

34

F antigens

Major adhesion antigens

35

K antigens

Capsular antigens

36

H antigens

Flagellar antigens

37

O antigens 

Lipopolysaccharide goes with?

38

Process of translation

Doxycycline, in regards to site of action in the bacteria, affects?

39

Fluoroquinolones

This antimicrobial family has very poor activity against obligately anaerobic bacteria

40

Non-proliferative mature villous epithelium

The cells mainly responsible for intestinal absorption of fluids are?

41

Glycopeptides

Vancomycin

42

Fluoroquinolones

Enrofloxacin

43

Macrolides

Gamithromycin

44

Cephalosporins

Cefovecin

45

Aminoglycosides

Amikacin

46

Carbapenems

Imipenem

47

Polypeptides

Polymyxin B

48

Acetamides

Chloramphenicol

49

Azoles

Ketoconazole

50

facultatively anaerobic

In relationship to growth in the presence of oxygen, Salmonella would be classified as?

51

Gram -, oxidase -, non-spreforming rods

A description of the family Enterobacteriaceae would be as follows

52

DNA replication

Enrofloxacin, in regards to site of action in the bacteria affects?

53

Polymyxin B

This antimicrobial is known for alleviating the adverse effects of endotoxin in horses

54

Salmonella enterica

What is the only validly named species of Salmonella in the following list?

55

Gentamicin

What is the antimicrobial of choice for treatment of a Yersinia pestis infection in cats?

56

Bacteriocidal and concentration dependent

Gentamicin, in regards to use in the patient and action on the bacteria is?

57

Malabsorption

villous atrophy as occurs w/ some of the major intestinal virus diseases of animals such as rotavirus causes a diarrhea primarily due to?

58

Bacteriocidal and Time dependent

Cephadroxil, in regards to use in the patient and action on the bacteria is?

59

cell wall synthesis

Cephadroxil, in regards to site of action in the bacteria affects?

60

Lactose positive

The term coliform bateria are identified as those members of the family Enterobacteriaceae that are?

61

Outer variable oligosaccharide region

Rough mutants used for vaccination to control endotoxemia have a deficiency in which of the following parts of the LPS?

62

Carrier state w/o clinical disease

In cats, Salmonella infection can usually be characterized as?

63

Adhere to intestinal mucosa

Certain virulence factors are considered to be necessary for E. coli to be called Enterotoxigenic. These factors include the ability to?

64

Bacteriostatic and time dependent

Doxycycline, in regards to use in the patient, and action on the bacteria are?

65

Enterotoxigenic E. coli

This type of E. coli is most commonly involved in food poisoning in humans such as traveler's diarrhea

66

Enterohemorrhagic E. coli

The type of E. coli associated w/ hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans

67

Attaching and effacing E. coli

This type of E. coli directs the mucosal cells to form a pedestal for the E. coli to perch on

68

Enterotoxigenic E. coli

The type of E. coli associated w/ neonatal colibacillosis in swine

69

Shiga toxin producing E. coli

The type of E. coli associated w/ edema disease in swine

70

Oxidase test (Cytochrome oxidase test)

Major biochemical test used to separate the gram-negative bacteria into two major groups

71

Selenite medium

Enrichment broth used for isolation of Salmonella from contaminated specimens

72

Voges-Proskauer test

Used to determine if a bacterial isolate produces acetoin

73

Ornithine Decarboxylaserxn

MIO medium is used to determine two biochemical rxns: Indole and ?

74

Brilliant green agar

Highly selective solid media used for isolation of salmonella from feces

75

Oxidative fermentative media

Media used to determine if bacterial isolates would have either of these biochemical pathways: pentose phosphate shunt or entner-doudoroff pathway

76

Catalase test

Major biochemical test used to separate the gram-positive cocci into 2 major groups

77

Mueller Hinton

Medium used for determining antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial specimen

78

Lactose

The rxn on the slant of TSI is used to determine the fermentation of this sugar

79

Lysine deaminase rxn

A positive test separates the Proteus-providencia group from the rest of the Enterobacteriaceae

80

Amphotericin B

This drug which is known for its nephrotoxicity is used to treat fungal infections must be given slow intravenous injection

81

Amoxicillin

This drug can cause a hypersensitivity in humans. When given to an individual that is hypersensitive it can cause hives or even fatal anaphylactic shock

82

Chloramphenicol

This drug can cause a totally non-treatable fatal aplastic anemia in humans

83

Sulfadiazine

This drug is associated w/ a condition called keratoconjunctivitis sicca in dogs

84

Enrofloxacin

This drug must be used w/ caution in young horses because of its propensity to cause potentially debilitating lesions in developing cartilage

85

Enrofloxacin

This agent must be used w/ caution in cats because use above 5 mg/kg can cause retinal degeneration

86

Chloramphenicol
Enrofloxacin

Vancomycin

This FDA has forbidden off label use of these three antimicrobials in food animals because of potential human health problems

87

Chlortetracycline

This drug when given orally to a horse will often suppress the normal flora and thus allow overgrowth of a salmonella in the digestive tract resulting in an often fatal salmonellosis

88

E. coli

At necropsy of 2 pigs w/ CNS symptoms, you observed edema of eyelids and edema of submucosa along the greater curvature of the stomach. What is the probably etiologic agent?

89

Yersinia pestis

Principal cause of Sylvatic plague in cats

90

Salmonella Enteritidis

This Salmonella serotype is the most common serotype isolated from poultry

91

Klebsiella pneumoniae

This agent, associated w/ wood product bedding is a cause of mastitis in dairy cattle

92

Salmonella Typhi

This Salmonella serotype is the cause of typhoid fever in humans

93

salmonella Enteritidis

This salmonella serotype is the principal cause of salmonella food poisoning in humans from poultry sources

94

E. coli O157:H7

This agent causes hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans

95

Salmonella Typhimurium

This salmonella serotype is the principal cause of Salmonella food poisoning in humans from mammalian sources

96

Salmonella dublin

This salmonella serotype, host-adapted to cattle, is a cause of abortion in cattle

97

Salmonella Typhimurium

This salmonella is the most common serotype associated w/ diseases in dogs in the US

98

Yersinia Pestis

This agent causes a lesion in humans known as a "bubo" which is a very painful enlargement of the lymph nodes

99

Yersinia pestis

This agent is a CDC Category A potential biio-terrorism agent

100

Enterobacter aerogenes, E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae

These bacterial species are known as Coliforms

101

Attaching and effacing E. coli

This type of E. coli directs the mucosal cells to form a pedestal for the E. coli to perch on

102

Enterohemorrhagic E. coli

This type of E. coli associated w/ hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans

103

Enterotoxigenic E. coli

This type of E. coli is most commonly involved in food poisoning in humans such as Traveler's Diarrhea

104

Enterotoxigenic E. coli

The type of E. coli associated w/ neonatal colibaclilosis in swine

105

Antiseptics

Chemicals used to prevent growth or destroy potential pathogens on body surfaces

106

Disinfectants

Term referring to the destruction of potentially pathogenic microorganisms by chemical means

107

Synergistic Antimicrobials

The term for antimicrobial action in which the use of 2 antimicrobials increases the level of activity above the level of activity for either one alone

108

Transduction

This process refers to the transfer of genes b/t bacteria via bacterial viruses

109

Bacteriostatic antimicrobials

The term in disease treatment for the drug type that inhibits bacterial multiplication but bacteria are not killed

110

Minimum inhibitory concentration

The concentration of a antimicrobial that will prevent bacteria replication in vitro

111

R-factors

Plasmids that carry genes coding for bacterial resistance

112

Gene cassettes

Term for the modular DNA sequences encoding for antimicrobial resistance that are carried and transferred b/t integrons

113

Transposons

These are genes that are capable of transferring copies of themselves and assocaited genes to a new site w/ in a replicon or to different replicons

114

Beta lactamases

Enzymes responsible for resistance of gram positive bacteria to penicillin

115

Dihydrofolic acid

The use of this compound by bacteria in Purine synthesis is the target of the Trimethoprim type of antimicrobials

116

Time dependent Antimicrobials

To be clinically effective, this type of antimicrobial must maintain a blood level that is greater than the MIC for duration of treatment

117

Post Antibiotic Effect

Term for the antibiotic effect on bacteria after the antibiotic is no longer in the system

118

Sterilize

Complete destruction of all microorganisms by physical means or chemical means

119

F antigens

Major adhesion antigens

120

K antigens

Capsular antigens

121

H antigens

Flagellar antigens

122

Increased permeability of the intestinal wall

Enteritis due to E. coli serotype O157:H7 in humans

123

Osmotic effects w/ subsequent malabsorption

Nutritional diarrhea in an orphaned foal fed milk replacer

124

Malabsorption due to villous atrophy

Parvovirus infection in a young dog

125

Active hypersecretionof water and electrolytes

Enterotoxigenic E. coli in a neonatal calf

126

Lysine deaminase rxn

A positive test separates the proteus-providencia group from the rest of the Enterobacteriaceae

127

Indole test

A positive test indicates metabolism of tryptophan

128

Oxidative fermentative media

Media used to determine if bacterial isolates would have either of these biochemical pathways: Pentose Phosphate Shunt or Entner Doudoroff pathway

129

Oxidase test

Major biochemical test used to separate the Gram-negative bacteria into 2 major groups

130

KOH test

Test used to determine the gram rxn of a bacterial isolate

131

VP test

Used to determine if a bacterial isolate produces acetoin

132

Catalase test

Major biochemical test used to separate the Gram-positive coccin into 2 major groups

133

Mueller Hinton Agar

Medium used for determining antimicrobials susceptibliity of bacterial specimen

134

Acetamides

Chloramphenicol

135

Glycopeptides

Vancomycin

136

Cephalosporins

Ceftiofur

137

Aminoglycosides

Amikacin

138

Azoles

Fluconazole

139

polypeptide

Polymyxin B

140

Macrolides

Azithromycin

141

Lincosaminides

Clindmycin

142

Fluoroquinolones

Enrofloxacin

143

Malabsorption

Villous atrophy as occurs w/ some of the major intetinal virus diseases of animals such as Rotavirus causes a diarrhea primarily due to?

144

Facultatively anaerobic

in relationship to growth in the presence of oxygen, Salmonella would be classified as?

145

Hypermotility is not known to be a major primary or contributing cause of diarrhea

According to current knowledge, how would we rate hypermotility in the SI as a cause leading to diarrhea in animals?

146

A carrier state w/o clinical disease

In cats, Salmonella infection can usually be characterized as?

147

Chlortetracycline

This drug, when given orally to a horse, will often suppress the normal flora and thus allow overgrowth of a salmonella in the digestive tract resulting in often fatal salmonellosis

148

Chloramphenicol

This drug can cause a totally non-treatable fatal aplastic anemia in humans

149

Sulfadiazine

This drug is associated w/ a condition called keratoconjunctivitis sicca in dogs

150

Tilmicosin

This macrolide drug used to treat cattle and swine is known for having significant toxicity on accidental injection in humans

151

Enrofloxacin

This drug must be used w/ caution in young horses because of its propensity to cause potentially debilitating lesions in developing cartilage

152

Enrofloxacin

This agent must be used w/ caution in cats because use above 5 mg/kg can cause retinal degeneration

153

Amoxicillin

This drug can cause a hypersensitivity in humans. When given to an individual that is hypersensitive it can cause hives or even fatal anaphylactic shock

154

Chloramphenicol
Enrofloxacin

Vancomycin

The FDA has forbidden off label use of these 3 antimicrobials in food animals because of potential human health problems

155

Lactose positive

The term coliform bacteria are identified as those members of the family enterobacteriaceae that are

156

Adhere to intestinal mucosa

Certain virulence factors are considered to be necessary for E. coli to be called enterotoxic. These factors include the ability to:

157

The bite of infected fleas

The principal means by which Yersinia pestis is spread though susceptible populations is by?

158

Salmonella enterica

What is the only validly named species of Salmonella in the following list

159

Gram negative, oxidase negative, non-sporeforming rods

A description of the family Enterobacteriaceae would be as follows?

160

Iron metabolism in the bacteria

Ab produced by vaccines using the Siderophore receptor and proin technology work because they disrupt:9

161

Non-proliferative mature villous epithelium

The cells mainly responsible for intestinal absorption of fluids are?

162

Outer variable oligosaccharide region

Rough mutants used for vaccination to control endotoxemia have a deficiency in which of the following parts of the LPS

163

Bacteriocidal and time dependent

Cephalosporins, in regards to use in the patient and action on the bacteria are?

164

Cell wall synthesis

Cephalosporins, in regards to site of action in the bacteria affects?

165

Bacteriostatic and time dependent 

Doxycycline, in regards to use, in the patient, and action on the bacteria are?

166

Process of translation

Doxycycline, in regards to site of action in the bacteria affects?

167

Gentamicin

What is the antimicrobial of choice for treatment of a Yersinia pestis infection in cats?

168

Bacteriocidal and concentration dependent

Aminoglycosides, in regards to use in the patient and action on the bacteria are?

169

E. coli O157:H7

This agent is a common cause venereal transmitted equine metritis w/ infertility in the US

170

Salmonella Dublin

This salmonella is a very common cause of salmonellosis in cattle and is considered to be host-adapted to cattle

171

Salmonella Newport
Salmonella Typhimurium

These 2 Salmonella serovars are associated w/ significant mortality in horses

172

Salmonella Choleraesuis

This Salmonella serovar is a common cause of septicemia and pneumonia in swine

173

Proteus mirabilis

This agent is known for its propensity to swarm on blood agar

174

Neonatal Colibacillosis
2. Edema disease

3. Enteric infection w/ Enterotoxigenic E. coli in adult humans

4 things that the primary infection site is the SI

175

LI

What is the primary site of infection of Enteric infection w/ enterohemorrhagic E. coli in humans?

176

Both SI and LI

What is the primary infection site of enteric infections w/ Salmonella typhimurium in a young pig?

177

Griseofulvin

This drug should not be used for treatment of pregnant queens because of the potential for teratogenic effects

178

Lincomycin

This drug, a feed additive for swine, will cause a non-responding fatal diarrhea when accidentally fed to horses

179

Stx

Shiga toxin

180

Increased permeability of the intestinal wall

Enteritis due to salmonella typhimurium in a 150# pig

181

Malabsorption due to villous atrophy

Coronavirus infection in a neonatal pig

182

Process of translation

The family aminoglycosides in regards to site of action in the bacteria affects?

183

Bacteriocidal
Time dependent

Penicillin in regards to use in the patient and action on the bacteria is?

184

cell wall synthesis

Penicillin in regards to site of action in the bacteria affects?

185

Bacteriostatic and time dependent

Erythromycin (a macrolide), in regards to use in the patient and action on the bacteria is?

186

Process of translation

Erythromycin (a macrolide), in regards to site of action in the bacteria, affects

187

Bacteriocidal and concentration dependent

Fluoroquinolones in regards to use in the patient and action on the bacteria is?

188

DNA replication

Fluoroquinolones in regards to site of action in the bacteria affects?

189

Aminoglycosides

Gentamicin

190

Acetamides

Chloramphenicol

191

Macrolide

Timicosin

192

Lincosaminides

Clindamycin

193

A phage type of the bacterium

What does DT 104 stand for in the designation of Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104?

194

Tetrathionate broth

In isolation of Salmonella from the feces, which of the following is commonly used as an Enrichment Media to improve the chances of finding the Salmonella by inhibiting E. coli growth?

195

Enterohemorrhagic E. coli

Which of these diarrheogenic E. coli cause the most serious disease after zoonotic spread from animals to man in the US?

196

Inflammation of the bladder

The term cystitis refers to?

197

Increased hypersecretionof water and electrolytes

The primary mechanism which causes the diarrhea produced by enterotoxigenic E. coli can best be characterized as?

198

Kilebsiella pneumoniae

This agent is a common cause venereal transmitted equine metritis w/ infertility in the US

199

E. coli

A toxin produced in the intestinal tract by this gram negative bacterium is absorbed into the blood stream and then causes damage to small blood vessels resulting in brain ischemia w/ encephalomalacia resulting in CNS symptoms in swine

200

Salmonella Newport

The very virulent Salmonella serovar has been implicated in severe enteric fevers and death in immunocompromised humans who have consumed undercooked beef products

201

Both SI and LI

What is the primary site of infection for enteric infections w/ Salmonella typhimurium in a young pig?

202

Camp test

The ability of other bacteria to enhance the hemolytic zones of Staph aureus is determined w/ this test

203

Oxidative fermentative media

Used to determine if a bacterial isolate can oxidize glucose

204

Mueller Hinton Agar

Medium used to in antibacterial susceptibility testing

205

Triple Sugar Iron Agar
MacConkey Agar

Two media that can be used to determine if a bacterial isolate can ferment lactose

206

Brilliant green agar
MacConkey agar

Two media classified as selective

207

Malabsorption due to villous atrophy

Rotavirus infection in a neonatal calf

208

Osmotic effects w/ subsequent malabsorption

Nutritional diarrhea in an orphaned foal fed milk replacer

209

Increased hypersecretionof water and electrolytes

The primary mechanism which causes the diarrhea produced by enterotoxigenic E. coli can best be characterized as?

210

Amoxicillin and Doxycycline

You decided to use a combo of antimicrobials in your treatment of a mixed infection in a dog. Which of the following combos would be irrational to use because the drugs have a high potential for antagonims w/ each other?

211

Enterohemorrhagic E. coli

Which of these diarrheogenic E. coli present the most serious zoonotic threat in the US?

212

Porin protein

Bacterial LPS consists of all of the following compounds except?

213

Proliferative immature crypt epithelium

The cells mainly responsible for intestinal secretion of fluids are the?