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Flashcards in Exposure Midterm Deck (95):
1

What prevents the lead strips from being seen on the radiograph
1. The grid oscillates
2. The grid strips are parallel to the beam
3. the kvp is above 60
4. the lead strips blend in with kVp settings over 60

1. The grid oscillates

2

When a body part appears on a radiograph as shorter than it actually is, the term 
1. penumbra
2. distortion
3. elongation
4. foreshortening

4. foreshortening

3

The distance between the subject or part and the IR is referred to as:
1. OID
2. PRD
3. SRD
4. SID

1. OID

4

The distance between the subject or part and the IR is referred to as:
1. OID
2. PRD
3. SRD
4. SID

1. OID

5

What are the four essential elements required for x-ray production?
1. A target, A vacuum, an electron source, and a high potential difference
2. A target, a source of electrons, an inert gas environment, and a high potential difference
3. A source of electrons, a magnetic field, a resistance-free path, and a target
4. A source of electrons, an electric field, a circuit, and a target

1. A target, A vacuum, an electron source, and a high potential difference

6

Which of the following statements is true regarding the characteristics of tungsten
1. Tungsten has a low melting point
2. Tungsten is a very soft metal
3. Tungsten is a very unstable element
4. Tungsten has a high melting point

4. Tungsten has a high melting point

7

The mAs used for an exposure determines the:
1. Wavelength of the resulting x-ray beam
2. Quantity of radiation in the exposure
3. Rate at which X-rays are produced
4. Voltage across the x-ray tube

2. Quantity of radiation in the exposure

8

Which of the following can be found on a dual-focus x-ray tube?
1. 1 and 2 only
2. 1 and 3only
3. 2 and 3 only
4. 1 2 and 3
1. Two filaments
2. two focal spot sizes
3. Two anode

1. 1 and 2 only

9

The density in the radiographic image is primarily controlled by the:
1. mA
2. mAs
3. kVp
4. SID

2. mAs

10

If the radiographic image is overexposed, which of the following changes in exposure factors should be used to correct the problem?
1. Decrease kVp
2. increase kVp
3. increase mAs
4. decrease mAs

4. decrease mAs

11

What is the principal source of scatter radiation in radiography
1. Tube housing
2. Patient
3. Table
4. Collimator

2. Patient

12

Free electrons at the cathode that are used for x-ray production come from the :
1. Filament
2. Target
3. anode
4. kilovoltage

1. Filament

13

Which of the following if increased, will result in increased radiographic density
1. 1 and 2 only
2. 1 and 3 only
3. 2 and 3 only
4. 1,2,and 3
1. Increase mA
2. Increase exposure time
3. Increase kVp

4. 1,2,and 3

14

The inverse square law states the intensity of the x-ray beam is _____ to the square of the distance
1. Directly Proportional
2. Inversely Proportional
3. Not related
4. Proportional

2. Inversely Proportional

15

Which of the following minimize shape distortion?
1. 1 and 2 only
2. 1 and 3 only
3. 2 and 3 only
4. 1,2,and 3
1. Position plane of subject parallel to the plane of IR
2. Position plane of subject perpendicular to the plane of IR
3. Position the CR perpendicular to IR and subject…

2. 1 and 3 only

16

Fog affects radiographic quality by causing 
1. Underexposure
2. Decreased contrast
3. Increased contrast
4. Decreased Density

2. Decreased contrast

17

As kVp is increased, photoelectric interactions will
1. Increase
2. Decrease
3. Remain the same
4. Increase only above 60kvp

2. Decrease

18

Which of the following factors affect the quality of scatter radiation fog on a radiograph
1. 1 and 2 only
2. 1 and 3 only
3. 2 and 3 only
4. 1,2, and 3
1. Field size
2. Focal spot size
3. kVp

2. 1 and 3 only

19

A larger actual focal spot produces
1. Greater image sharpness
2. Greater tube heat capacity
3. lower patient dose
4. more characteristic radiation

2. Greater tube heat capacity

20

The anode, or target, of the x-ray tube is ______ charged
1. Positively
2. Negatively
3. Neutrally
4. Radioactively

1. Positively

21

The difference in x-ray intensity (or volume of X-rays) between the anode and the cathode side of the x-ray beam is:
1. 45%
2. 60%
3. 75%
4. 80%

1. 45%

22

What type of radiation is produced when an incoming electron interacts with the K-shell electrons in the tungsten atom
1. Characteristic radiation
2. Scatter radiation
3. Bremsstrahlung radiation
4. Thermionic emission

1. Characteristic radiation

23

The target of the x-ray tube is made of:
1. Tungsten
2. Glass
3. Stainless Steel
4. Fluorescent Phosphors

1. Tungsten

24

The cathode end of the x-ray tube is _____ charged
1. Positively
2. Negatively
3. Neutrally
4. Radioactively

2. Negatively

25

If an image were made using 500mA, 0.1 seconds, and 75kvp, What would the mAs be for this exposure
1. 5 mAs
2. 50 mAs 
3. 25 mAs
4. 500 mAs 

2. 50 mAs

26

Which of the following occur when the mA is doubled
1. 1 and 2 only
2. 1 and 3 only
3. 2 and 3 only
4. 1,2,and 3
1. The number of x-ray photons decrease by 50%
2. Radiographic density increases
3. There are twice as many photons in the x-ray beam

3. 2 and 3 only

27

The relationship between the SID and x-ray bean intensity is expressed in the _____ law
1. Proportional square
2. Inverse square
3. reciprocity
4. Target-distance

2. Inverse square

28

The filament of an x-ray tube is made of
1. Glass
2. A coil of copper wire
3. A coil of tungsten wire
4. A fluorescent tube

3. A coil of tungsten wire

29

What is required to move the electron stream rapidly across the x-ray tube
1. Magnetic Field
2. High potential Difference
3. Focusing cup
4. Copper mass in the target

2. High potential Difference

30

A change from the small focal spot to the large focal spot results in 
1. Decreased resolution
2. Magnification
3. Distortion
4. Increased Contrast

1. Decreased resolution

31

What is the effect of magnification on spatial resolution
1. Magnification has no effect on resolution
2. Magnification increases resolution
3. Magnification decreases resolution
4. The effect of magnification on resolution is variable according to the kVp and ir speed 

3. Magnification decreases resolution

32

Which of the following statements is true? if kVp increases, the:
1. Number of photoelectric interactions increases
2. Scatter radiation fog increases
3. Compton and photoelectric interactions increase
4. Compton and photoelectric interactions decrease 

2. Scatter radiation fog increases

33

The difference in density between any two adjacent portions of the image is called
1. Tissue Density
2. Sharpness of detail
3. Radiographic recorded detail
4. Radiographic Contrast 

4. Radiographic Contrast

34

If an exposure time is measured as 35 milliseconds, what is the exposure time in seconds?
1. 0.350 Seconds
2. 350 Seconds
3. 0.035 Seconds
4. 3.5 Seconds

3. 0.035 Seconds

35

If the mA doubles, dose to the patient will:
1. Increase 25%
2. Increase 50%
3. Double
4. Be reduced 50%

3. Double

36

If a grid is misaligned with the central ray, it can cause a light area on the side of the image called:
1. Coherent Scattering
2. Parallel effect
3. Grid Cut Off

3. Grid Cut Off

37

The penetrating power of the x-ray beam is controlled by varying the:
1. Anode angle
2. Anode Speed
3. Milliamperage
4. Kilovoltage

4. Kilovoltage

38

The electron cloud that surrounds the hot cathode is referred to as a:
1. Focusing Cup
2. Photon
3. Filament
4. Space Charge

4. Space Charge

39

If the body part is thicker, the amount of scatter radiation fog will:
1. Increase
2. Decrease
3. Remain the same
4. Increase, depending on the kVp level

1. Increase

40

If the size of the x-ray field increases, what happens to scatter radiation fog?
1. It increases
2. It decreases
3. It remains the same
4. It increases for the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis projections only

1. It increases

41

A device for removing long wave length radiation from the primary x-ray beam is a:
1. Collimator
2. Rheostat
3. Rectifier
4. Filter

1. Collimator

42

More than 99% of energy applied to an x-ray tube is converted into 
1. Bremsstrahlung Radiation
2. Characteristic Radiation
3. Secondary Radiation
4. Heat

4. Heat

43

An increase in OID will result in
1. Increased magnification
2. Increased image sharpness
3. Loss of contrast
4. Increased radiographic density

1. Increased magnification

44

The factors that affect x-ray quality are:
1. Kilovoltage
2. Filtration
3. mAs 
1. 1 and 2
2. 1 and 3
3. 2 and 3
4. 1,2,and 3

1. 1 and 2

45

When an image demonstrates great differences between the densities, the image is described as:
1. Poor quality
2. High Quality
3. Contrast
4. High Contrast

4. High Contrast

46

Another name for size distortion is:
1. Enlargement
2. Magnification
3. Minification
4. Flux Gain

2. Magnification

47

Which of the following reduces the amount of scatter fog on a radiograph?
1. 1 and 2
2. 1 and 3
3. 2 and 3
4. 1, 2, and 3
1. Decrease in kVp
2. decrease in field size
3. decrease in grid ratio

1. 1 and 2

48

The device that is placed between the patient and the IR to absorb scatter radiation is called a:
1. Grid
2. Filter
3. Gonad Shield
4. Cassette 

1. Grid

49

Two exposures are made using the following technical factors: Image A: 500 mA, 0.05 seconds, 72kvp. Image B; 200 mA, 0.125 seconds, 72 kVp 
1. Image A
2. Image B
3. Image A and B would exhibit equal density
4. Density cannot be determined because no SID was provided

3. Image A and B would exhibit equal density

50

The degree of angulation of the x-ray tube target will determine the:
1. Effective focal spot
2. Speed of anode rotation
3. Number of photons in the x-ray beam
4. Heat capacity of the anode

1. Effective focal spot

51

The distance between the tube target and the IR is termed:
1. Source image receptor distance SID
2. Target image receptor distance TID
3. Total image receptor distance TID
4. Tube target receptor distance TTD

1. Source image receptor distance SID

52

A low kVp setting produces an image with 
1. A long scale of contrast
2. A short scale of contrast
3. High recorded detail
4. A low level of contrast

2. A short scale of contrast

53

Scatter radiation affects radiographic appearance by causing:
1. Increased distortion
2. Increased recorded detail
3. Decreased contrast
4. Decreased density

3. Decreased contrast

54

The primary controlling factor of radiographic density is:
1. mAs
2. kVp
3. SID
4. OID

1. mAs

55

When an image demonstrates little or low difference between the densities, the image is describes as:
1. Poor quality
2. High Quality
3. Poor Contrast
4. Low Contrast

4. Low Contrast

56

When exposure time is very short, the time is usually measured in:
1. Milliseconds
2. Deciseconds
3. Kiloelectron Volts
4. Angstroms 

1. Milliseconds

57

The greatest portion of the x-ray beam is made up of:
1. Characteristic produced radiation
2. Brem produced radiation
3. Low energy electrons
4. High energy electrons

2. Brem produced radiation

58

If the mA doubles, the quantity of exposure will:
1. Double
2. be reduced by 50%
3. be indirectly proportional to the mA 
4. be indirectly proportional to the exposure time

1. Double

59

What percentage of the total energy applied to an x-ray tube target is converted into X-rays?
1. 1%
2. 50%
3. 75%
4. 99%

1. 1%

60

The contrast in the radiographic image is controlled by the:
1. mA
2. mAs
3. kVp 
4. Exposure time

3. kVp 

61

Contrast is directly influenced by:
1. 1 and 2
2. 1 and 3
3. 2 and 3
4. 1, 2, and 3
1. SID
2. FOG
3. Collimation

3. 2 and 3

62

Taking into account the anode heel effect when making a recumbent AP radiograph of the femur (thigh bone) on a 14X17 inch IR at 40 inches SID, the patient should be placed so that the:
1. Head is towards the anode end of the tube
2. Head is towards the cathode end of the tube
3. Position is convenient; The anode heel effect is not significant in this case

2. Head is towards the cathode end of the tube

63

When a body part appears on a radiograph as longer then it actually is, the term used is:
1. Penumbra
2. Distortion
3. Elongation
4. Foreshortening

3. Elongation

64

When an image demonstrates only few densities, and there is a great difference between the densities, the image is described to as having :
1. Short-scale contrast
2. Long-scale contrast
3. Low contrast 
4. Increased recorded detail

1. Short-scale contrast

65

The most effective and practical way to reduce scatter radiation fog is referred to as:
1. Decrease the OID
2. Decrease the SID
3. Increase the kVp 
4. use a grid

4. use a grid

66

The overall darkness, or blackness within a radiographic image is referred to as:
1. Density
2. Contrast
3. Recorded Detail
4. mAs 

1. Density

67

Compton scatter occurs when an x-ray photon interacts with which part of the atom in the patient’s body?
1. Inner shell electron
2. Outer orbital electron
3. Nucleus-protons
4. Nucleus-neutrons

2. Outer orbital electron

68

When an image demonstrates many densities, and there is little difference between the densities, the image is described as having”
1. Short-scale contrast
2. Long-scale contrast
3. Low contrast
4. Increased recorded detail

2. Long-scale contrast

69

Tissue density refers to the ______ of the body part
1. Density of muscle
2. Density of fat
3. Mass density or atomic number 
4. Density of bone

3. Mass density or atomic number 

70

What is one of the most important things a limited operator can do to control scatter radiation?
1. Reduce the thickness of the part
2. Maintain the correct field size
3. Use the exposure technique chart
4. Use the correct grid

2. Maintain the correct field size

71

The interactions that produce scatter radiation occur primarily in the:
1. Table Top
2. Image Receptor
3. Patient
4. Tube Housing

3. Patient

72

When performing the collimator test, the four sides of the collimator must each be within _____ % of the SID to be in control
1. 1
2. 1.5
3. 2
4. 3

3. 2

73

The x-ray beam is made of of many different energy X-rays, this mean is referred to as:
1. Attenuated
2. Heterogeneous
3. Ionized
4. Electromagnetic

2. Heterogeneous

74

What are the four primary aspects of radiographic quality?
1. mA, seconds, kVp and SID
2. SID, density, Scatter and mAs
3. Density, contrast, Distortion and spatial resolution
4. Density, contrast, Distortion and distance

3. Density, contrast, Distortion and spatial resolution

75

As kVp increased Compton interactions will
1. Increase
2. Decrease
3. Remain the same
4. increase only above 60 kVp

1. Increase

76

The primary controlling factor of contrast is?
1. Milliamperage
2. Exposure time
3. kilovoltage
4. mAs

3. kilovoltage

77

With a large OID the reduction of magnification is accomplished by:
1. Increasing the SID
2. Increasing the kVp
3. Decreasing the SID
4. decreasing the kVp

1. Increasing the SID

78

Grid cut off will occur when the:
1. 1 and 2
2. 1 and 3
3. 2 and 3
4. 1, 2, and 3
1. Tube is off-center
2. Tube is tilted
3. SID is too great

4. 1, 2, and 3

79

Scatter radiation fog will:
1. 1 and 2
2. 1 and 3
3. 2 and 3
4. 1, 2, and 3
1. Increase density
2. Decrease contrast
3. Reduce visibility of detail

4. 1, 2, and 3

80

What type of radiation is produced in the anode by the sudden slowing and directional change of an incoming electron?
1. Characteristic Radiation
2. Scatter Radiation
3. Brem Radiation 
4. Thermionic Emission

3. Brem Radiation

81

Generalized unwanted exposure on the image is called:
1. Overexposure
2. Over-penetration
3. Fog
4. Penumbra

3. Fog

82

As a general rule, a grid should be employed when the part thickness is greater than:
1. 4cm 
2. 10cm
3. 18cm
4. 12in

2. 10cm

83

X-ray equipment capable of producing 70 kVp or more must have how much equivalent aluminum filtration?
1. 0.5 mm Al Equiv
2. 1.0 mm Al Equiv
3. 2.5 mm Al Equiv
4. 3.5 mm Al Equiv

3. 2.5 mm Al Equiv

84

Higher kVp settings produce images with:
1. Long-scale contrast
2. Short-scale contrast
3. High contrast
4. Little or no recorded detail

1. Long-scale contrast

85

The primary controlling factor of penetration of X-rays is:
1. mA 
2. kVp 
3. SID
4. Exposure Time

1. mA

86

The unit used to indicate the total quantity of X-rays in an exposure is:
1. mAs
2. SID
3. kVp 
4. Volts

1. mAs

87

Fog is primarily caused by:
1. kVp that is too high
2. kVp that is too low
3. Scattered radiation
4. Patient size

3. Scattered radiation

88

How does scatter radiation fog reduce the visibility of detail in a radiographic image?
1. By increasing contrast
2. By increasing distortion
3. By decreasing contrast
4. By decreasing distortion

3. By decreasing contrast

89

At what kVp levels do Compton interactions occur
1. 40 kVp
2. 50 kVp
3. 80 to 125 kVp
4. 40 to 125 kVp, the entire diagnostic range

4. 40 to 125 kVp, the entire diagnostic range

90

Grids with lead strips that are aligned to coincide with the primary beam angle are called _____
1. Crosshatch
2. Focused
3. Parallel
4. Bucky

2. Focused

91

The principal means of controlling involuntary motion is to:
1. Decrease in SID
2. Decrease in exposure time (seconds)
3. Increase in exposure time (seconds)
4. Increase in OID

2. Decrease in exposure time (seconds)

92

An x-ray exposure is made using the following factors: 400 mA, 0.02 sec, 80 kVp, 40 sued, and the large focal spot. What is the mAs for this exposure
1. 0.08 mAs
2. 0.8 mAs
3. 8 mAs
4. 80 mAs

3. 8 mAs

93

What is the principal advantage of a high speed rotating anode?
1. More efficient production of X-rays
2. Increased amount of characteristic radiation produced
3. Increased amount of Brem radiation produced
4. More efficient heat dissipation

4. More efficient heat dissipation

94

A variation in the size or shape of the image as compared with the subject it represents is called:
1. Resolution
2. Distortion
3. Unsharpness
4. Fog

2. Distortion

95

The x-ray tube inside the protective housing is made of:
1. Lead
2. Steel
3. Aluminum
4. Pyrex Glass

4. Pyrex Glass