exsc 460 exam 1 Flashcards Preview

anatomy > exsc 460 exam 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in exsc 460 exam 1 Deck (29):
1

function of muscle

contract

2

what determines what action a muscle performs

where the muscle or its tendon crosses the joint it's acting upon.
and the relationship to the axis of rotation

3

What determines how well a muscle does what it does

size and angle of pull

4

advantages of isometric contraction

easy/no equipment necessary
maintains neural association
retards muscle atrophy
increase in static muscle strength

5

disadvantages of isometric contraction

boring;tedious
angle specific
not effective for dynamic strength or endurance improvement

6

advantages of isotonic contraction

functional
easy patient motivation
has concentric/eccentric component
can improve strength and endurance

7

disadvantages of isotonic contraction

safety
momentum (they can cheat)
fatigue compromises ROM
can be traumatic

8

Advantages of Isokinetic contraction

efficiency (max resistance throughout ROM)
safe
minimal post-exercise soreness
provides feedback to patient

9

disadvantages of isokinetic contraction

cost and convenience
equipment availability
time-consuming
greater chance of having source of error

10

variables that can be adjusted in progressive resistance exercises

resistance
repitions
sets
frequency
duration
speed of contraction
type of contraction
position of patient

11

the muscle is contracting against the resistance and being strengthened

active exercise

12

the muscle is relaxed while resistance is acting on it, it is being stretched

passive exercise

13

advantages of closed kinetic chain exercises

enhances body awareness
produces accelerating, decelerating, and stabilizing function
allows for variable speed of movement

14

disadvantages of closed kinetic chain exercises

difficult to isolate muscle groups
difficult to provide control
requires expertise to detect fatigue

15

ultimate goal of therapeutic exercise

achieve optimum symptom-free movement and function

16

specific goals of therapeutic exercise

development, improvement, restoration, or maintenance of:
strength
endurance
relaxation
coordination
mobility and flexibility

17

easiest, voluntary contraction aided by therapist

active assistive exercise

18

patient moves body segment through ROM unaided,
mass of body segment is resistance

active exercise

19

patient moves body segment through ROM against an external resistance

active-resistive exercise

20

primary principles of active-resistance exercise and manual muscle testing

1. isolate muscle or muscle group
2. stabilize proximal segment
3. apply resistance to the distal end of distal segment
4. angle of resistance should be 90d through complete ROM

21

etiology of posture problems

poor body mechanics
hereditary
environmental factors/working conditions
congenital factors
physical fitness level

22

In a plumb line test, the line passes through what:

mastoid process
bisects shoulder joint
bisects greater trochanter
bisects knee
anterior to lateral malleolus

23

shorter, tighter, stronger

convex side

24

longer, stretch, weaker

concave side

25

effect on muscles remaining in a lengthened position beyond the neutral position

stretch weakness

26

natural consequence of tendancy for a shortened muscle to remain in somewhat shortened condition, no lengthening during relaxation

adaptive shortness

27

first degree in development of acquired deformities

curable by exercise
changes in muscle tone and habitual posture
no bony changes
patient can correct position of affected part

28

second degree in development of acquired deformities

improvable by exercise
definite contracture of soft structures
slight degree of bony change
can be corrected to some extent by therapist

29

third degree in development of acquired deformities

improved by surgery only
serious bony changes
little, if any change can be produced with exercise