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Flashcards in exsc 460 exam 2 Deck (108)
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1

anterior line of gravity passes through what?

anterior superior iliac spine
bisects the knee
bisects the ankle
foot at the second toe

2

bones in the hindfoot

talus and calcaneus

3

hindfoot joint

subtalar or talocalcaneal joint

4

function of hindfoot

conversion of rotatory forces of the lower extremity

5

movements of hindfoot

gliding and rotation
pronation and supination

6

bones in the midfoot

navicular, cuboid, and cuneiforms

7

midfoot joint

transtarsal joint

8

function of midfoot

transmits movement from rearfoot to forefoot and promotes stability

9

2 axis' of the midfoot

oblique and longitudinal

10

when subtalar joint pronates,

transtarsal planes become parallel and foot becomes flexible

11

as subtalar joint supinates,

transtarsal planes converge medially and foot becomes rigid and lever-like

12

bones in forefoot

metatarsals and phalanges

13

name the 2 functions of the feet

support: stability for upright posture with minimal muscle effort, flexibility to adapt to uneven terrain
locomotion: rotation of tibia and fibula during gait, flexibility for shock absorption during gait, rigid lever during push-off

14

function of the arches

absorb and distribute GRF produced by body during ambulation or static erect posture
assist ambulation by increasing speed and agility

15

longitudinal arch

may be divided into medial and lateral
Feiss' line used during assesment: line drawn from inferior tip of medial malleolus to plantar surface of first metatarsal phalangeal joint. navicular tuberosity

16

Hallux Valgus

big toe deviates away from midline of body and toward midline of foot
metatarsus primus varus

17

etiology of hallux valgus

mal foot posture, pronated or flat foot
forefoot varus
tight shoes
hereditary
abnormal mechanics during 1st phase of gait
arthritis

18

pathological changes of hallux valgus

abnormal excess stress on medial aspect of head of 1st metatarsal
callus formation
bursitis
exostosis
bunion formation
severe loss of plantar flexion

19

management of hallux valgus

prevention: proper fitting shoes, properly fitting orthotics, improve ankle dorsi flexion ROM
conservative: doughnut pad, toe crests, toe splint, ice massage for inflammation and pain, exercises to strengthen flexor and extensor muscles of great toe.

20

surgeries to fix hallux valgus

weight bearing xray required
structural: problem is osseous
positional: problem is soft tissue
combined: requires surgical correction of bone and soft tissue

21

Hallux Varus

big toe deviates towards midline of body and away from midline of the foot. uncommon in the west.

22

etiology of hallux varus

congenital: majority of cases
acquired: idiopathic, develops spontaneously in middle age, related to chronic arthritis

23

Management of Hallux Varus

mild cases respond to passive stretching exercises for adductor hallucis and proper footwear.
more severe cases require surgery.

24

mallet toe

flexion contracture of distal phalanx

25

diagnosis of mallet toe

can occur on any of 4 lateral toes

26

pathological changes of mallet toe

usually asymptomatic, possible formation of corn of callus over dorsum of affected joint

27

claw foot

condition characterized by extension of the metatarsophalangeal joints and flexion of interphalangeal joints.

28

etiology of claw foot

congenital or acquired
associated with forefoot adductus, arthritis, or neuromuscular pathology
result of defective lumbricals and interossei muscles
associated with pes cavus or equinus

29

pathological changes of claw foot

hard corns or calluses over dorsal surface of toes
may effect gait and functional ability

30

management of claw foot

if acquired, corrective footwear
if congenital, surgery