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Flashcards in Eye Deck (90):
1

Palatine, lacrimal, and ethmoid bones (3)

Make up VERY thin medial wall of eye socket, lining ethmoid air sinus, and can be broken very easily

2

Maxilla bone

Bottom-middle portion of eye socket, sits on top of maxillary sinus, fracture can allow contents to fall into this sinus

3

5/7 Openings for Structures to Get to Eye

Optic canal
Superior orbital fissure
Supraorbital foramen
Inferior orbital fissure
Infraorbital groove, canal, and foramen

4

Optic Canal Location/2 Contents

Most superomedial
Optic n.
Ophthalmic a.

5

Superior Orbital Fissure Location/5 Conents

Large fissure just lateral to optic canal
Oculomotor (III), Trochlear (IV), Abducens (VI) n.s
Opthalmic division of Trigeminal (V1) n.
Venous drainage

6

Inferior Orbital Fissure Location

Teardrop shaped more inferior to superior orbital fissure

7

Infraorbital groove (3)

Groove coming down from inferior orbital fissure
Goes into canal and foramen
Maxillary division of trigeminal (V2) travels through it as infraorbital n. and comes out foramen onto cheek for subcutaneous innervation of cheek

8

Trauma to Orbit

Can blowout thin medial/inferior walls of optic cavity

9

Conjunctiva

Smooth serosa lining of interior eyelid and eye itself

10

Conjunctiva, palpebral portion

Smooth serosa on lining interior eyelid

11

Lacrimal caruncle

Little hill in middle of lacus lacrimalis

12

Lacus lacrimalis

Lake of fluid that connects at medial edge of eye

13

Lacrimal punctum and papillae

Drainage sites superior and inferior for lacus lacrimalis (punctum is little hole on papilla hill) to drain into nasal cavity

14

Plica semilunaris

Line at lateral edge of lacus lacrimalis

15

Orbital septum

DIRCT that holds eyelid to bony wall and surrounds eye

16

Medial and Lateral Palpebral Ligaments/Raphes

Hold edges of eyelids to bony wall

17

Tarsal plates

Cartilaginous plate in eyelid to give it a little bit of structure

18

3 Muscles of Eyelid

Palpebral portion of orbicularis oculi m.
Levator palpebrae superioris m.
Superior tarsal m.

19

Levator palebrae superioris m. (2)

lifts superior palpebrum (upper eyelid)
voluntary skeletal by Oculomotor n. (III)

20

Superior tarsal m.

Smooth muscle innervated by sympathetics
Lifts superior tarsal plate to open eyes more

21

Sclera (2)

White part of eye that's really just continuation of dura mater

22

Iris (2)

Colored part of the eye that acts as diaphragm, expanding and contracting to allow more and less light in

23

Blood Supply to Eye from Internal Carotid

Via ophthalmic a. - first branch off internal carotid

24

Cornea (2)

Clear structure on outside of eye that allows light to get through
Avascular so easy to transplant

25

4 External Eye Branches of Ophthalmic A.

Supraorbital, supratrochlear, infratrochlear, and lacrimal a.s

26

Blood Supply to External Eye from External Carotid (4 branches)

Superficial temporal a.
Transverse facial a.
Infraorbital a.
Facial a.s

27

Interal-External Carotid Anastomosis Around Eye

Superficial temporal a. (from ext) and supraorbital a. (from int)

28

Venous Drainage of Eyes (4)

Primarily ophthalmic v.s to cavernous sinus
Also facial, superficial temporal, and pterygoid plexus v.s

29

Motor Innervation of External Eye

Zygomatic branch of Facial n. (VII)

30

Sensory Innervation of External Eye (2)

Ophthalmic and Maxillary Branches of Trigeminal n.s (V1/2)

31

6 Eye Movement Muscles

Superior rectus m.
Medial rectus m.
Inferior rectus m.
Lateral rectus m.
Superior oblique m.
Inferior oblique m.

32

Rectus m.s of Eye

4 "straight" muscles (sup/med/inf/lat). Just pull in direction they're coming from

33

2 Exceptions to Oculomotor n. (III) Innervation of Eye Movement Muscles

Lateral rectus m. - abducens n. VI
Superior oblique m. - trochlear n. IV

34

Purpose of Eye Oblique Muscles

Counteract the angled torque from rectus muscles

35

Superior oblique m.

Comes from medial side, then kind of goes around pulley and pulls eye from bottom, tilting pupil down

36

2 Muscles to Tilt Eye Down

Superior oblique m. and inferior rectus m.

37

Inferior Oblique m.

Arises from medial side of ant. aspect of orbit and wraps around, pulling pupil up and out

38

2 Muscles to Tilt Eye Up

Inferior oblique m. and superior rectus m.

39

Annulus Tendinious

Round ring that gives rise to all eye movement muscles except inferior oblique m.

40

7 Intraorbital Branches of Ophthalmic A.

Central retinal
Ciliary
Lacrimal
Supraorbital
Ethmoidal
Dorsal nasal
Supratrochlear

41

Central retinal a.

Runs in center of optic n. to supply retina

42

Ciliary a.s

Little arteries that run along optic n.

43

Lacrimal a.

Runs laterally from ophthalmic to lacrimal gland

44

Ethmoidal Branches

Go medially into ethmoid air cells (mucosal cells) inside nasal cavity

45

Dorsal nasal a.

Goes onto top of nose

46

Venous Drainage of Internal Eye (2)

Superior and inferior ophthalmic veins draining into cavernous sinus
Nonvalvular - blood flow in either direction

47

2 M.s of Superior Division of Oculomotor n. (III)

levator palpebrae and superior rectus m.s

48

4 Components of Inferior Division of Oculomotor n. III (+ one point about one)

Medial and inferior rectus m.s
Inferior oblique m.s
(Autonomic, pregang parasymp fibers) Motor root to ciliary ganglion

49

Finding Trochlear Nerve (IV)

Easy because just goes straight to superior oblique m.

50

Finding Abducens Nerve (VI)

Easy because just supplies lateral rectus m.

51

3 Main Sensory Branches of Ophthalmic Div/Trigeminal n. (V1)

Lacrimal
Frontal
Nasociliary

52

2 Innervates of Lacrimal Branch of V1

Lacrimal gland and upper eyelid

53

2 Branches of Frontal Branch of V1

Supraorbital and supratrochlear n.s

54

4 Branches off Nasociliary Branch of V1

Sensory root to ciliary ganglion
Long ciliary
Ethmoidal
Infratrochlear

55

Sensory root to ciliary ganglion

Goes to ciliary ganglion which gives off short ciliaries to bring back sensory innervation from eye (not vision, pain)

56

Long ciliary branches of V1

Bypass ciliary ganglion and go to globe to do sensory (not sight) innervation of eye

57

Ethmoidal branches of V1

Upper nasal sinus

58

Tip of Nose Innervation

V1

59

Proprioception of Voluntary Eye Motor Muscles (2)

Either by motor nerves or trigeminal n. (V)

60

Optic Nerve (II) Function

Transmits visual info to brain

61

Path of Sympathetic Fibers to Eye (8)

Intermediolaterall cell column of thoracic spinal cord
Superior cervical ganglia (synapse)
Common carotid plexus
Internal carotid plexus
Ophthalmic plexus
Sympathetic Root of Ciliary Ganglion
Ciliary ganglion (no synapse)
Short ciliary n.s to eye

62

Dilator Pupillae m. Sympathetic Innervation

Bypass ciliary ganglion via long ciliary n. to dilate pupil

63

Clinical Consideration of Heart Sympathetics

They travel up to cervical ganglia and then back down, so lesions in neck can cause sympathetic cardiac problems

64

Path of Parasympathetic Fibers to Eye (5)

Nucleus of Edinger-Westphal in midbrain
Oculomotor n. (III)
Oculomotor root of ciliary ganglion
Ciliary ganglion (synapse)
Short ciliary n.s to eye

65

2 Parasympathetic Actions in Eye

Stimulate sphincter pupillae m.s to close eye
Ciliary m.s on deep aspect of iris which change relationship of lens to allow focusing

66

3 Pupil Eye Muscle Orientations

Dilator pupillae - longitudinal
Sphincter pupillae - circular
Ciliary m. - circular

67

2 Structures of Fibrous (Outer) Coat of Eye

Sclera
Cornea

68

3.2 Structures of Vascular (Middle) Coat of Eye

Iris w/ sphincter and dilator pupillae m.s
Ciliary body
Choroid

69

Ciliary body function IGNORE

Produces aqueous humor

70

Choroid IGNORE

Space containing vasculature and melanocytes for eye

71

4 Structures of Retinal (Inner) Coat of Eye IGNORE

Ora serrata
Optic disc
Macula lutea
Fovea centralis

72

Ora serrata IGNORE

Serrated area at furthest anterior extension of retinal coat (about 2/3 of the way to anterior surface)

73

Optic disc IGNORE

Blind spot on back of retina where n. fibers and such come in

74

Macula lutea IGNORE

Yellow spot surrounding fovea centralis

75

Fovea centralis IGNORE

Area of highest visual sensitivity on back of retina

76

Suspensory ligaments of lens

Loosened when ciliary muscles contract allowing lens to round

77

Vitreous body IGNORE

Kind of big gelatinous space that holds lens anteriorly and retina posteriorly

78

Difference b/w long and short ciliary innervation to eyeball

Long n.s: primarily sensory
Short n.s: primarily autonomic

79

3 Aspects of Accomodation

Voluntary convergence of eyes
Thickening of lens: parasympathetic from ciliary muscle contract, loosening suspensory ligaments, and lens rounding naturally
Constriction of pupil: parasympathetic of sphincter pupillae m.

80

Lacrimal gland blood supply

Lacrimal branch of ophthalmic a.

81

Lacrimal gland sensory innervation

Lacrimal branch of ophthalmic div/trigem (V1)

82

Lacrimal gland autonoomic innervation (2)

Sympathetic reduces tearing
Parasympathetic increases

83

Passage of Tears Across Eye (2)

From lacrimal gland (upper lateral) to lower medial portion of eye. Blinking facilitates motion

84

Collection/Drainage of Tears (5)

Lacrimal punctum in each eye
Lacrimal canaliculi
Lacrimal sac - lacrimal portion of orbicularis oculi m.
Nasolacrimal duct
Inferior meatus of nasal cavity

85

Sympathetic Innervation of Lacrimal Gland (8)

Internal carotid plexus
Deep petrosal n.
Nerve of pterygoid canal (Viridian n.)
Pterygopalatine ganglion (no synapse)
Zygomatic branch of max div of trigeminal n.
Communicating branch
Lacrimal branch of ophthalmic div of trigem n.
Smooth m.s of blood vessels of gland

86

Parasympathetic Innervation of Lacrimal Gland (7)

Superior salivatory nuc
Facial n.
Greater petrosal n.
Nerve of the pterygoid canal (Vidian n.)
Pterygopalatine ganglion (synapse)
Zygomatic branch of maxillary div of trigem n.
Communicating branch
Lacrimal branch of ophthalmic branch of trigem n.

87

Combined Autonomic Pathway of Lacrimal Gland (3)

Zygomatic branch of V2
Communicating branch
Lacrimal branch of V1 into lacrimal gland

88

Glaucoma

Increase in pressure in fluid chamber

89

Cataracts

Lenses get cloudy, can replace w/ fake ones but won't have ability to round

90

Detachment of retina

Retina falling off, usually heals self