Flashcards in Eyewitness Information and Identification Deck (35):
Three types of memory
Sensory memory - short-term memory - longterm memory
Refers to the very short duration for which sense-based information is held post-exposure
Refers to the limited amount of information 7 + or - 2 items usually which can be stored without rehearsal for a short duration (approx 30 seconds)
Refers to the almost unlimited amount of information which can be stored over a life-time with rehearsal
Why is the reliability of the information given important (3)
- assisting police to identify a suspect - assisting police to confirm the indentity of an alleged offender - providing testimony at trials
How is reliability generally assessed?
Generally assessed according to the memory model (esp. long-term memory)
The relationship between confidence and reliability
there is no relationship
Is the ability to elicit stored material through the use of a cue
Is the ability to elicit stored material without externally providing any type of cue
What are two categories that factors related to the input aspect of eyewitness reliability
Witness and Situation
What are the witness-based factors? (5)
-Age -Gender - Race - Intelligence - Personality -
What are the situational factors? (5)
-Stress/arousal - Event duration - Weapons effect - Frequency of victimisation - Illumination
Age based differences
- free recall differences (younger and elderly are less able to free recall) - Line-up identification differences (young children less reliable than adults) - difference in suggestibility (the younger you or elderly the more suggestible you are)
Gender based differences
- Slight recall difference based on stereotyped activities (remember based on stereotypical male/female activity - the activity that matches the witnesses own)
Race based diff.
Cross race recognition differences
Intelligence based diff.
No difference (within reason unless below ~70)
Personality based diff.
- Recall and recognition difference for high self-monitors
Stress/arousal based diff.
- Recognition and recall impact based on yerkes-dodson
Event duration based diff.
-Recall diff at approx 30 seconds, get better after 30 seconds
-Recall or recognition differences
Issues with storage of information
- Passage of time - Rehearsal - Meaning - Post-event information
Passage of time based diff.
Recall and recog differences - the sooner after the event the better
Recall and recognition differences (for both under and over rehearsal)
If something means more to you, you're more likely to remember
- The issue of 'planted memories'
Issues assoc. with output of information
Type of questioning- Confidence - Use of Interview Protocol - False Memories
Type of questioning
Free recall vs prompting questions - need victims to remember things without prompting them (and possibly planting memories)
No difference in confidence levels
Use of interview protocol
Less bias with interview protocols
Linked to Freudian Theory of Repressed Memories & Suggestibility
Identification Procedures in the old days:
Show-ups (show someone the alleged offender in handcuffs)
Need the line-up to be equitable - hard to do
"circle the person you recognise"