Eyewitness Information and Identification Flashcards Preview

Intro to Forensic Psychology > Eyewitness Information and Identification > Flashcards

Flashcards in Eyewitness Information and Identification Deck (35):
1

Three types of memory

Sensory memory - short-term memory - longterm memory

2

Sensory memory

Refers to the very short duration for which sense-based information is held post-exposure

3

Short-term memory

Refers to the limited amount of information 7 + or - 2 items usually which can be stored without rehearsal for a short duration (approx 30 seconds)

4

Long term-memory

Refers to the almost unlimited amount of information which can be stored over a life-time with rehearsal

5

Why is the reliability of the information given important (3)

- assisting police to identify a suspect - assisting police to confirm the indentity of an alleged offender - providing testimony at trials

6

How is reliability generally assessed?

Generally assessed according to the memory model (esp. long-term memory)

7

The relationship between confidence and reliability

there is no relationship

8

Recognition

Is the ability to elicit stored material through the use of a cue

9

Recall

Is the ability to elicit stored material without externally providing any type of cue

10

What are two categories that factors related to the input aspect of eyewitness reliability

Witness and Situation

11

What are the witness-based factors? (5)

-Age -Gender - Race - Intelligence - Personality -

12

What are the situational factors? (5)

-Stress/arousal - Event duration - Weapons effect - Frequency of victimisation - Illumination

13

Age based differences

- free recall differences (younger and elderly are less able to free recall) - Line-up identification differences (young children less reliable than adults) - difference in suggestibility (the younger you or elderly the more suggestible you are)

14

Gender based differences

- Slight recall difference based on stereotyped activities (remember based on stereotypical male/female activity - the activity that matches the witnesses own)

15

Race based diff.

Cross race recognition differences

16

Intelligence based diff.

No difference (within reason unless below ~70)

17

Personality based diff.

- Recall and recognition difference for high self-monitors

18

Stress/arousal based diff.

- Recognition and recall impact based on yerkes-dodson

19

Event duration based diff.

-Recall diff at approx 30 seconds, get better after 30 seconds

20

Weapons Effect

-Recall or recognition differences

21

Frequency

Recognition differences

22

Issues with storage of information

- Passage of time - Rehearsal - Meaning - Post-event information

23

Passage of time based diff.

Recall and recog differences - the sooner after the event the better

24

Rehearsal

Recall and recognition differences (for both under and over rehearsal)

25

Meaning/Simulation heuristic

If something means more to you, you're more likely to remember

26

Post-event information

- The issue of 'planted memories'

27

Issues assoc. with output of information

Type of questioning- Confidence - Use of Interview Protocol - False Memories

28

Type of questioning

Free recall vs prompting questions - need victims to remember things without prompting them (and possibly planting memories)

29

Confidence

No difference in confidence levels

30

Use of interview protocol

Less bias with interview protocols

31

False memories

Linked to Freudian Theory of Repressed Memories & Suggestibility

32

Identification Procedures in the old days:

Show-ups (show someone the alleged offender in handcuffs)

33

Live-Line up

Need the line-up to be equitable - hard to do

34

Photo-line up

"circle the person you recognise"

35

The photo line-up construction process

- 1 target, 5 foils
-Foils should match target as much as possible (hard to do if target has changed)
- Target should be in a random position
- Should tell them that the target may not be in the line-up
-Sequential vs simultaneous (psychs argue there is a huge difference between them)