Flashcards in F215:03:10 Conservation Deck (19):
What is conservation?
the maintenance of biodiversity, including diversity between species and maintenance of a variety of habitats and ecosystems
How is the human population increasingly threatening biodiversity?
- Over-exploitation of wild populations for food, sport and commerce (species are harvested faster than they can replenish themselves)
- Habitat disruption and fragmentation as a result of more intensive farming, increased pollution and widespread building
- Species may be introduced to an ecosystem by humans (deliberately or accidentely) which may out-compete native species and make them extinct
Give an example of over-exploitation of populations for food
cod in the North Sea
Give an example of over-exploitation of populations for sport
Give an example of over-exploitation of populations for commerce
pearls collected from salt water oysters and fresh water clams
What has caused habitat disruption and fragmentation?
more intensive farming, widespread building and pollution
What are the ethical reasons for maintaining biodiversity?
Every species has its own right, irrespective of whether it has financial value to humans
They all have the right to survive and we have the responsibility to look after them
What is the main reason the gvmt gives priority to conservation?
by expressing the value of conservation in economic terms
What are the economic and social reasons for conservation?
- Many species have direct economic value when harvested
- Others have have direct value that is not yet recognised and may be valuable in the future
- Many species provide a valuable food source, and were original wild species (e.g. cows and pigs)
- Natural environments are value source of potentially beneficial resources, e.g. drugs
- Natural predators of pests can act as biological control agents, which can be better than using chemicals
- Indirect economic value, e.g insects pollinate crops
- There is evidence that a reduction in biodiversity may decrease climatic stability
- Ecotourism and recreation in the countryside has significant social and financial value (aestheitc value)
What is aesthetic value?
the fact things look nice
What is the difference between conservation and preservation?
Consrevation is maintenance of biodiversity
Preservation is protecting land that has been unused by humans and leaving it in that untouched form
How do people ensure conservation is carried out?
and giving legal protection to endangered species or conserving them in ex-situ habitats such as zoos or botanic gardens
What does SSSI stand for?
Sites of Special Scientific Interest
Give some examples of management strategies
- Raising carrying capacity by providing extra food
- More individuals to enlarge populations or encourage the dispersion of individuals between fragmented habitats
- Restrict the dispersal of individuals with fencing
- Control predators and poachers
- Vaccinate individuals against disease
- Preserve habitats by preventing pollution or disruption or intervene to prevent succession
Why is it important to maintain biodiversity?
Give some examples of how humans may reduce the biodiversity
Habitat destruction and fragmentation, over exploitation of resources, introduction of invasive species into ecosystems
Explain the differences between direct and indirect financial value of a species
A species has a direct financial value if it can be harvested or otherwise exploited directly for money
A species has indirect value if its activities provide a function that would otherwise cost money
Explain why it is important to conserve a new ecosystem simply by putting a fence around it
Because every ecosystem will go trhough a process of succession