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Flashcards in FA - Classic Labs/Findings Deck (162):
1

Anticentromere antibodies

Scleroderma (CREST)

2

Antidesmoglein (epithelial) antibodies

Pemphigus vulgaris (blistering)

3

Anti–glomerular basement membrane antibodies

Goodpasture syndrome (glomerulonephritis and hemoptysis)

4

Antihistone antibodies

Drug-induced SLE (hydralazine, INH, phenytoin, procainamide)

5

Anti-IgG antibodies

Rheumatoid arthritis (systemic inflammation, joint pannus, boutonnière deformity)

6

Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs)

1° biliary cirrhosis (female, cholestasis, portal hypertension)

7

Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs)

Microscopic polyangiitis and Churg-Strauss syndrome (MPO-ANCA/p-ANCA)

granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener; PR3-ANCA/c-ANCA)

8

Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs: anti-Smith and anti-dsDNA)

SLE (type III hypersensitivity)

9

Antiplatelet antibodies

Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

10

Anti-topoisomerase antibodies

Diffuse systemic scleroderma

11

Anti-transglutaminase/anti-gliadin/anti-endomysial antibodies

Celiac disease (diarrhea, distention, weight loss)

12

“Apple core” lesion on abdominal x-ray

Colorectal cancer (usually left-sided)

13

Azurophilic peroxidase

Auer rods (AML, especially the promyelocytic [M3] type)

14

Bacitracin response

Sensitive: Streptococcus pyogenes (group A)

Resistant: Streptococcus agalactiae (group B)

15

“Bamboo spine” on x-ray

Ankylosing spondylitis (chronic inflammatory arthritis: HLA-B27)

16

Basophilic nuclear remnants in RBCs

Howell-Jolly bodies (due to splenectomy or nonfunctional spleen)

17

Basophilic stippling of RBCs

Lead poisoning or sideroblastic anemia

18

Bloody tap on LP

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

19

“Boot-shaped” heart on x-ray

Tetralogy of Fallot, RVH

20

Branching gram-positive rods with yellow sulfur granules

Actinomyces israelii

21

Bronchogenic apical lung tumor on imaging

Pancoast tumor (can compress sympathetic ganglion and cause Horner syndrome)

22

“Brown” tumor of bone

Hyperparathyroidism or osteitis fibrosa cystica (deposited hemosiderin from hemorrhage gives brown color)

23

Cardiomegaly with apical atrophy

Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi)

24

Cellular crescents in Bowman capsule

Rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis

25

“Chocolate cyst” of ovary

Endometriosis (frequently involves both ovaries)

26

Circular grouping of dark tumor cells surrounding pale neurofibrils

Homer-Wright rosettes (neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma, retinoblastoma)

27

Colonies of mucoid Pseudomonas in lungs

Cystic fibrosis (autosomal recessive mutation in CFTR gene -> fat-soluble vitamin deficiency and mucous plugs)

28

decr. AFP in amniotic fluid/maternal serum

Down syndrome or other chromosomal abnormality

29

Degeneration of dorsal column nerves

Tabes dorsalis (3° syphilis), subacute combined degeneration (dorsal columns and lateral corticospinal tracts affected)

30

Depigmentation of neurons in substantia nigra

Parkinson disease (basal ganglia disorder: rigidity, resting tremor, bradykinesia)

31

Desquamated epithelium casts in sputum

Curschmann spirals (bronchial asthma; can result in whorled mucous plugs)

32

Disarrayed granulosa cells in eosinophilic fluid

Call-Exner bodies (granulosa-theca cell tumor of the ovary)

33

Dysplastic squamous cervical cells with nuclear enlargement and hyperchromasia

Koilocytes (HPV: predisposes to cervical cancer)

34

Enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusion bodies

“Owl eye” appearance of CMV

35

Enlarged thyroid cells with ground-glass nuclei

“Orphan Annie” eyes nuclei (papillary carcinoma of the thyroid)

36

Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in liver cell

Mallory body (alcoholic liver disease)

37

Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in nerve cell

Lewy body (Parkinson disease)

38

Eosinophilic globule in liver

Councilman body (toxic or viral hepatitis, often yellow fever)

39

Eosinophilic inclusion bodies in cytoplasm of hippocampal and cerebellar nerve cells

Negri bodies of rabies

40

Extracellular amyloid deposition in gray matter of brain

Senile plaques (Alzheimer disease)

41

Giant B cells with bilobed nuclei with prominent inclusions (“owl’s eye”)

Reed-Sternberg cells (Hodgkin lymphoma)

42

Glomerulus-like structure surrounding vessel in germ cells

Schiller-Duval bodies (yolk sac tumor)

43

“Hair on end” (crew-cut) appearance on x-ray

β-thalassemia
sickle cell anemia (marrow expansion)

44

hCG elevated

Choriocarcinoma
hydatidiform mole (occurs with and without embryo, and multiple pregnancy)

45

Heart nodules (granulomatous)

Aschoff bodies (granuloma w/ giant cells, associated with rheumatic fever)

46

Heterophile antibodies

Infectious mononucleosis (EBV)

47

Hexagonal, double-pointed, needle-like crystals in bronchial secretions

Bronchial asthma (Charcot-Leyden crystals: eosinophilic granules)

48

High level of D-dimers

DVT, PE, DIC

49

Hilar lymphadenopathy, peripheral granulomatous lesion in middle or lower lung lobes (can calcify)

Ghon complex (1° TB: Mycobacterium bacilli)

50

“Honeycomb lung” on x-ray or CT

Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis

51

Hypercoagulability (leading to migrating DVTs and vasculitis)

Trousseau syndrome (adenocarcinoma of pancreas or lung)

52

Hypersegmented neutrophils

Megaloblastic anemia (B12 deficiency: neurologic symptoms; folate deficiency: no neurologic symptoms)

53

Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis

Conn syndrome

54

Hypochromic, microcytic anemia

Iron deficiency anemia, lead poisoning, thalassemia (fetal hemoglobin sometimes present)

55

Increased AFP in amniotic fluid/maternal serum

Dating error
Anencephaly
Spina bifida (neural tube defects)

56

Increased uric acid levels

Gout, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, tumor lysis syndrome, loop and thiazide diuretics

57

Intranuclear eosinophilic droplet-like bodies

Cowdry type A bodies (HSV or CMV)

58

Iron-containing nodules in alveolar septum

Ferruginous bodies (asbestosis: incr. chance of mesothelioma)

59

Keratin pearls on a skin biopsy

Squamous cell carcinoma

60

Large lysosomal vesicles in phagocytes, immunodeficiency

Chédiak-Higashi disease (congenital failure of phagolysosome formation)

61

“Lead pipe” appearance of colon on barium enema x-ray

Ulcerative colitis (loss of haustra)

62

Linear appearance of IgG deposition on glomerular basement membrane

Goodpasture syndrome

63

Low serum ceruloplasmin

Wilson disease (hepatolenticular degeneration)

64

“Lumpy bumpy” appearance of glomeruli on immunofluorescence

Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (immune complex

65

Lytic (“hole punched”) bone lesions on x-ray

Multiple myeloma

66

Mammary gland (“blue domed”) cyst

Fibrocystic change of the breast

67

Monoclonal antibody spike

Multiple myeloma (usually IgG or IgA)

Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance
(MGUS consequence of aging)

Waldenström (M protein = IgM) macroglobulinemia

Primary amyloidosis

68

Mucin-filled cell with peripheral nucleus

“Signet ring” (gastric carcinoma)

69

Narrowing of bowel lumen on barium x-ray

“String sign” (Crohn disease)

70

Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener; PR3-ANCA/c-ANCA) and Goodpasture syndrome (anti–basement
membrane antibodies)

71

Needle-shaped, negatively birefringent crystals

Gout (monosodium urate crystals)

72

Nodular hyaline deposits in glomeruli

Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodules (diabetic nephropathy)

73

Novobiocin response

Sensitive: Staphylococcus epidermidis; resistant: Staphylococcus saprophyticus

74

hemolysis, uremia, and thrombocytopenia

EHEC triad

75

“Nutmeg” appearance of liver

Chronic passive congestion of liver due to right heart failure

76

Elementary body vs reticulate body

chlamydia

elementary = extracellular, "enfectious", enters cells via endocytosis

reticulate body = "replicative state"

77

Optochin response

Sensitive: Streptococcus pneumoniae

resistant: viridans streptococci

78

Periosteum raised from bone, creating triangular area

Codman triangle on x-ray (osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, pyogenic osteomyelitis)

79

Podocyte fusion or “effacement” on electron microscopy

Minimal change disease (child with nephrotic syndrome)

80

Polished, “ivory-like” appearance of bone at cartilage erosion

Eburnation (osteoarthritis resulting in bony sclerosis)

81

Protein aggregates in neurons from hyperphosphorylation of tau protein

Neurofibrillary tangles (Alzheimer disease)

Pick bodies (Pick disease)

82

Psammoma bodies

MPMP
Meningiomas
Papillary thyroid carcinoma
Mesothelioma
Papillary serous carcinoma of the endometrium and ovary

83

Pseudopalisading tumor cells on brain biopsy

Glioblastoma multiforme

84

RBC casts in urine

Acute glomerulonephritis

85

Rectangular, crystal-like, cytoplasmic inclusions in Leydig cells

Reinke crystals (Leydig cell tumor)

86

Renal epithelial casts in urine

Acute toxic/viral renal injury

87

Rhomboid crystals, positively birefringent

Pseudogout (calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals)

88

Rib notching

Coarctation of the aorta

89

Ring-enhancing brain lesion in AIDS

Toxoplasma gondii, CNS lymphoma

90

Sheets of medium-sized lymphoid cells with scattered pale, tingible body–laden macrophages (“starry sky” histology)

Burkitt lymphoma (t[8:14] c-myc activation, associated with EBV; “black sky” made up of malignant cells)

91

Silver-staining spherical aggregation of tau proteins in neurons

Pick bodies (Pick disease: progressive dementia, changes in personality)

92

“Soap bubble” in femur or tibia on x-ray

Giant cell tumor of bone (generally benign)

93

“Spikes” on basement membrane, “dome-like” subepithelial deposits

Membranous glomerulonephritis (may progress to nephrotic syndrome)

94

Stacks of RBCs

Rouleaux formation (high ESR, multiple myeloma)

95

Stippled vaginal epithelial cells

“Clue cells” (Gardnerella vaginalis)

96

Tennis racket”-shaped cytoplasmic organelles (EM) in Langerhans cells

Birbeck granules (Langerhans cell histiocytosis or histiocytosis X: eosinophilic granuloma)

97

Thrombi made of white/red layers

Lines of Zahn (arterial thrombus, layers of platelets/RBCs)

98

“Thumb sign” on lateral x-ray

Epiglottitis (Haemophilus influenzae)

99

Thyroid-like appearance of kidney

Chronic bacterial pyelonephritis

100

“Tram-track” appearance of capillary loops of glomerular basement membranes on light microscopy

Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis

101

Triglyceride accumulation in liver cell vacuoles

Fatty liver disease (alcoholic or metabolic syndrome)

102

“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow

Chronic end-stage renal disease

103

WBC casts in urine

Acute pyelonephritis

104

WBCs that look “smudged”

CLL (almost always B cell)

105

“Wire loop” glomerular capillary appearance on light microscopy

Lupus nephropathy

106

Yellowish CSF

Xanthochromia (e.g., due to subarachnoid hemorrhage)

107

CEA

colon

108

CA19

pancreatic cancer - 19 is when andrew s. started drinking

109

CA125

ovarian cancer

110

calcitonin

MTC

111

PTHrP

lung SCC - squamous

112

lung small cell paraneoplastic factors

ACTH, ADH, Lambert Eaton Syndrome

113

koilocytes

HPV

114

guarineri bodies

small pox

115

negri

rabies

116

synctia

measles

117

owls eyes

cmv (reed sternberg also have similar looking things)

118

schuffner dots in RBC

plasmodium vivax or ovale

119

Downey Cells

EBV

120

Holly Jewell

hyposplenia or asplenia (basophiilic nuclear remnants in RBC; normally removed by splenic macrophages)

121

Heinz bodies

G6PD

122

Coffee-bean nuclei

brenner tumor

123

ovarian neoplasm with spindle shaped fibroblasts

fibroma

124

ovarian neoplasm with Call-Exner bodies

Granulosa cell tumor

125

ovarian neoplasm with fried egg appearance

dysgerminoma; tumor marker hCG, LDH

126

ovarian neoplasm with Psammoma bodies

Serous Cystadenocarcinoma

127

ovarian neoplasm with increased hCG and LDH

dysgerminoma

128

ovarian neoplasm with Schiller-Duval bodies with increased AFP

Yolk Sac tumor

129

Signet cells in ovaries

Krukenberg tumor - GI metz

130

microcalcifications on mammography

ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) - malignant breast tumor

131

orderly row of cells in breast biopsy

invasive lobular "indian file"

132

testicular germ cell tumor with fried egg appearance (large cells w/ watery cytoplasm), increased ALP

seminoma

133

testicular germ cell tumor with schiller-duvall bodies (primitive glomeruli)

yolk sac tumor

134

testicular germ cell tumor with increased hCG

choriocarcinoma

135

large cytoplasmic vacuoles with reticulate bodies in epithelial cells

chlamydia trachomatis

136

test for 1˚ syphilis

dark-field microscopy of chancre biopsy

137

test for 2˚ syphilis

VDRL FIRST, then confirmed with FTA-ABS

138

test for 3˚ syphilis

FTA-ABS or microhemagglutination test

(dont use VDRL in this stage because it reverts to negative)

139

testicular tumor with sheets of undifferentiated cells with focal glandular differentiation

embryonal carcinoma

140

budding yeast cells and pseudohyphae at 25˚, but short germinating non-septate true hyphae (germ tubes) at body T

candida albicans

141

type of uterine tumor with well demarcated borders and a whorled pattern on the cut surface

smooth muscle tumor (leiomyomas) that develop from the smooth muscle cells of the myometrium

142

Aschoff bodies + Anitschkow cells

both associated w/ rheumatic fever

143

cardiac histology shows echogenic massess w/ bizzarre, markedly enlarged myocytes

rhabdomyomas - frequent cardiac tumor in children

144

cardiac histology shows scattered mucopolysaccharide stroma w/ abnormal blood vessels and hemorrhage

myxoma - tend to produce IL6, which causes fever + weight loss

145

acanthocyte (spurr cell)

liver disease (OH)
aß-lipoprotenemia (state of cholesterol dysregulation)

146

basophilic stippling

ACD
alcohol abuse
Lead poisioning
Thalassemia

147

Bite cell

G6PD

148

elliptocyte

hereditary elliptocytosis

149

macroovalocyte

megaloblastic anemia (also hypersegmented PMNs)
marrow failure

150

ringed sideroblast

SIderoblastic anemia

151

Schistocytes

DIC
TTP/HUS
traumatic hemolysis (mechanical heart valves)

152

spherocyte

hereditary spherocytosis

153

teardrop cell

myelofibrosis

154

target cell

HbC disease
Asplenia
Liver disease
thalssemia

155

HLA A3

hemochromatosis

156

HLA B27

Anklyosing spondylitis
psoriatic arthritis
Arthritis of IBD
Reactive Arthritis

157

HLA DQ2/DQ8

Celiac disease

158

HLA DR2

MS
SLE
Goodpasture
Hay fever

159

HLA DR3

DM Type I
SLE
Graves

160

HLA DR4

RA
DM Type I

161

HLA DR5

Pernicious Anemia (∆B12)
Hashimotos thyroidtis

162

HLA subtype associated with Diabetes Type I

HLA-DR3/4