FA - Classic/Relevant Treatments Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in FA - Classic/Relevant Treatments Deck (192):
1

Absence seizures

Ethosuximide (1st line)
Valproate (2nd line)

2

Acute gout attack

NSAIDs, colchicine (inhibits PMN chemotaxis along microtubules)

3

Acute promyelocytic leukemia (M3)

All-trans retinoic acid

4

ADHD

Methylphenidate, amphetamines

5

Alcohol use disorder

AA + disulfiram, naltrexone, or acamprosate (NDMA blocker & GABA-A agonist) for patient. Al- Anon for patient’s family

6

Alcohol withdrawal

Benzodiazepines

7

Anorexia

Nutrition, psychotherapy

8

Anticoagulation during pregnancy

Heparin

9

Arrhythmia in damaged cardiac tissue

Class IB antiarrhythmic (lidocaine, mexiletine, tocainide)

10

B12 deficiency

Vitamin B12 supplementation (work up cause with Schilling test)

11

Benign prostatic hyperplasia

Tamsulosin (alpha1 blocker), finasteride (5a reductase inh)

12

Bipolar disorder

Lithium, valproate, carbamazepine, lamotrigine (mood stabilizers)

13

Breast cancer in postmenopausal woman

Aromatase inhibitor (anastrozole)

14

Buerger disease

Smoking cessation

15

Bulimia nervosa

SSRIs

16

Candida albicans

Amphotericin B (systemic)
nystatin (oral thrush)
Azoles (vaginitis)

17

Carcinoid syndrome

Octreotide

18

Chlamydia trachomatis

Doxycycline (+ ceftriaxone for gonorrhea confection)

erythromycin eye drops (prophylaxis in infants)

19

Chronic gout

Probenecid (underexcretor)
Allopurinol (overproducer)
Febuxostat

20

Chronic hepatitis

IFN-α

21

Chronic myelogenous leukemia

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia

Imatinib

Aleumtuzumab (anti-CD52)

22

Clostridium botulinum

Antitoxin

23

Clostridium difficile

Oral metronidazole; if refractory, oral vancomycin

24

Clostridium tetani

Antitoxin + vaccine booster + diazepam

25

CMV

Ganciclovir

26

Crohn disease

Corticosteroids, infliximab, methotrexate, azathioprine

27

Cryptococcus neoformans

amphotericin B + Flucytosine (5FC) + Fluconazole for 6 wks
Fluconazole (prophylaxis in AIDS patients)

28

Cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis

Mesna

29

Depression

SSRIs (first-line)

30

Diabetes insipidus

DDAVP (central); hydrochlorothiazide, indomethacin, amiloride (nephrogenic)

31

Diabetes mellitus type 1

Diet ∆ (low sugar) + insulin

32

Diabetes mellitus type 2

Diet ∆, oral hypoglycemics, and insulin (if refractory)

33

Diabetic ketoacidosis

Fluids, insulin, K+

34

Enterococci

Vancomycin/ampicillin + aminoglycoside

35

Erectile dysfunction

Sildenafil, vardenafil

36

ER (+) breast cancer

Tamoxifen

37

Ethylene glycol/methanol intoxication

Fomepizole (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor)

38

Haemophilus influenzae (B)
prophylaxis? treatment?

Prophylaxis: Rifampin (prophylaxis)
treatment: Ampicillin

39

Generalized anxiety disorder

Buspirone

40

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener)

Cyclophosphamide, corticosteroids

41

Heparin toxicity (acute)

Protamine sulfate

42

HER2/neu (+) breast cancer

Trastuzumab

43

Hyperaldosteronism

Spironolactone

44

Hypercholesterolemia

Statin (first-line)

45

Hypertriglyceridemia

Fibrate

46

Immediate anticoagulation

Heparin

47

Infertility

Leuprolide, GnRH (pulsatile), clomiphene

48

Influenza

Rimantadine, oseltamivir

49

Legionella pneumophila

Erythromycin

50

Long-term anticoagulation

Warfarin

51

Malaria

Chloroquine/mefloquine (for blood schizont), primaquine (for liver hypnozoite)

52

Malignant hyperthermia

Dantrolene - muscle relaxant

53

Medical abortion

Mifepristone

54

Migraine

Sumatriptan

55

MRSA

Vancomycin

56

Multiple sclerosis

IFNβ, immunosuppression, natalizumab

57

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

RIPE (rifampin, INH, pyrazinamide, ethambutol)

58

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Ceftriaxone (add doxycycline to cover likely concurrent Chlamydia)

59

Neisseria meningitidis
treatment?
prophylaxis?

Treatment: ceftriaxone or pencillin

Prophylaxis: rifampin

60

Neural tube defect prevention

Prenatal folic acid

61

Osteomalacia/rickets

Vitamin D supplementation

62

Osteoporosis

Bisphosphonates; calcium and vitamin D supplementation

63

Patent ductus arteriosus

Indomethacin

64

Pheochromocytoma

α-antagonists (phenoxybenzamine, irreversible)

65

Pneumocystis jirovecii

TMP-SMX (prophylaxis in AIDS patient)

66

Prolactinoma

Bromocriptine (dopamine agonists)

67

Prostate cancer/uterine fibroids

Leuprolide, GnRH (continuous)

68

Prostate carcinoma

Flutamide

69

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Antipseudomonal penicillin + aminoglycoside

70

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (idiopathic)

Sildenafil
bosentan (endothelin receptor antagonist)
epoprostenol (prostacyclin)

71

Rickettsia rickettsii

Doxycycline, chloramphenicol (associated with aplastic anemia)

72

Ringworm infections

Terbinafine, griseofulvin, imidazole

73

Schizophrenia (negative symptoms)

5-HT2A antagonists (e.g., 2nd-generation antipsychotics)

74

Schizophrenia (positive symptoms)

D2 receptor antagonists (e.g., 1st- and 2nd-generation antipsychotics)

75

SIADH

Demeclocycline, lithium, vasopressin receptor antagonists

76

Sickle cell anemia

Hydroxyurea (incr fetal hemoglobin)

77

Sporothrix schenckii

Oral potassium iodide

78

Stable angina

Unstable angina
Angina prophylaxis

stable: NTG

Unstable; GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors (abciximab, epifibatide, tirofiban)

cilostazol, dipyridamole

79

Staphylococcus aureus

MSSA: nafcillin, oxacillin, dicloxacillin (antistaphylococcal penicillins)

MRSA: vancomycin

80

Streptococcus bovis

Penicillin prophylaxis; evaluation for colon cancer if linked to endocarditis

81

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Penicillin/cephalosporin (systemic infection, pneumonia), vancomycin (meningitis)

82

Streptococcus pyogenes

Penicillin prophylaxis

83

Temporal arteritis

High-dose steroids

84

Tonic-clonic seizures

Phenytoin, valproate, carbamazepine

85

Toxoplasma gondii

Sulfadiazine + pyrimethamine

86

Treponema pallidum

Penicillin

87

Trichomonas vaginalis

Metronidazole (patient and partner)

88

Trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux)

Carbamazepine

89

Ulcerative colitis

5-ASA, infliximab, colectomy

90

UTI prophylaxis

TMP-SMX

91

Warfarin toxicity

Fresh frozen plasma (acute), vitamin K (chronic)

92

Nesiritide

BNP (recombinant); used for treatment of heart failure

93

maintain PDA patency

PGE analog (alprostadil)

94

promote PDA closure

indomethacin

95

Torsades de pointes

MgSO4

96

Melanoa V600E

Vemurafenib - BRAF kinase inhibitor

97

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

eculizumab - selectively targets and inhibits the terminal portion of the complement cascade, which prevents the generation of the terminal complement complex C5b-9

98

Mother who is Rh- who develops anti-Rh IgG during her first pregnancy is pregnant again with a fetus that is Rh+. What should you do?

Rho(D) IgG

99

sideroblastic anemia due to defect in ALAS

pyridoxine B6 - cofactor for ALAS

100

Orotic aciduria

uridine monophosphate to bypass mutated enzyme

101

aplastic anemia

withdraw offending agent
allogenic BM transplant
RBC/platelet transfusion
G-CSF
GM-CSF

102

hereditary spherocytosis

splectomy

103

acute intermittent porphyria

deficient porphobilinogen deaminase
treat w/ glucose + heme, which inhibits ALAS

104

treatment for vWF disease

DDVAP - causes release of vWF in stored endothelium

105

hairy cell leukemia

cladribine 2-CDA - adenosine analog (inhibits adenosine deaminase)

106

Acute myelogenous leukemia

All-trans retinoic acid (vit A)

107

chronic myelogenous leukemia

imatinib - inhibits bcr-abl tyrosine kinase

(also busulfan)

108

polycythemia vera

phlebotomy

109

Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia

lepirudin/bivalirudin - thrombin inhibitors (prevents further clots from forming); can also be used instead of heparin for HIT patients

110

Pulmonary Embolism
- acute management
- long-term prophylaxis

acute - heparin
prophylaxis - warfarin (or rivaroxaban)

111

Stroke prevention in patients with a-fib

apixaban, rivaroxaban - binds directly and inhibits activity of factor Xa

112

stroke

alteplase (anything with "teplase")

113

alteplase OD

aminocaproic acid (inhibitor of fibrinolysis)
Fresh frozen plasma + cryoprecipitate

114

prevent clots from forming in coronary stents

clopidogrel, ticlopidine, prasurgrel, ticagrelor

115

treatment for intermittent claudication

cilostazol, dipyridamole
- phosphodiesterase III inhibitor
- increase cAMP in platelets -> inhibits aggregation

116

5-FU overdose

uridine

117

prevent cardiotoxicity caused by doxorubicin/daunorubicin

Dexrazoxane - Fe chelating agent

118

Glioblastoma multiforme

nitrosoureas - carmustine, lomustine, semustine, stretozocin (can cross BBB)

119

drug to ablate patients' bone marrow prior to BM transplant

busulfan

120

prevent nephrotoxicity from cisplatin, carboplatin

amifostine (free radical scavenger)

chloride diuresis

121

Amphetamines OD

NH4Cl

122

Lead OD

Lead:
EdtA**
Dimercaprol
Succimer

123

Acetaminophen OD

N-acetylcysteine
- binds to toxic metabolite (NAQPI)
- also provides sulfhydryl groups to enhance elimination
- replenishes glutathione

124

ß blocker OD

glucagon - acts on GPCR to increase cAMP, thereby releasing intracellular Ca -> increases contractility + HR; improves within minutes

125

Salicylates OD

NaHCO3/alkalinize urine to increase excretion
gastric decontamination (pump)
correct fluid/electrolyte imbalance

126

Benzodiazepines OD

Flumazenil (GABAa antagonist)

127

Digoxin OD - 3

Anti-dig Fab fragments
Mg2+
Normalize K+ slowly

128

carbon monoxide poisoning

100% hyperbaric O2

129

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors OD

Atropine and pralidoxime (2-PAM)

130

Heparin OD

protamine sulfate

131

Methanol, ethylene glycol (antifreeze) OD

Fomepizole (1st-line), ethanol, dialysis

132

TCAs OD - arrhythmias

NaHCO3

133

Opioids OD

Naloxone/naltrexone - both opioid antagonists

134

organophosphates OD

Atropine
pralidoxime (2-PAM)

135

Iron OD

Deferoxamine, deferasirox

136

Cyanide OD

Amyl Nitrite**
thiosulfate
hydroxocobalamin

137

Copper, arsenic, gold OD

Penicillamine

138

Theophylline OD

β-blocker

139

Methemoglobin OD

Methylene blue (reducing agent that converts iron in heme from Fe3+ -> Fe2+, vitamin C

140

Mercury, arsenic, gold OD

Dimercaprol (BAL), succimer

141

Antimuscarinic, anticholinergic agents OD

physostigmine (AChE inhibitor)

142

post-op or neurogenic ileus

bethanecol or neostigmine

143

myasthenia gravis

pyridostigmine (long-acting) or neostigmine

144

atropine OD

physostigmine

145

Alzheimer's

Donepezil
Rivastigmine
Galantime

146

Parkinson's

Benztropine

147

Motion Sickness

Scopolamine

148

COPD

Ipratropium, Tiotropium

149

reduce urgency in mild cystitis/ reduce bladder spasm

oxybutynin

150

Preop to reduce airway secretions

glycopyrrolate

151

person on MAOi who ate wine/cheese

phentolamine (reversible)

152

drug for sweat test in CF patients

pilocarpine

153

drug for asthma test

methacholine

154

drug to diagnose myasthenia gravis

edrophonium

155

severe galactosemia

exclude galactose + lactose

156

Von Gierke

frequent oral glucose + starch
avoid fructose + galactose

157

fructose intolerance

decrease sugar intake (glucose + fructose + sucrose)

158

Pyruvate DH malfunctioning (mutation or due to arsenic)

increase fat + lysine + leucine

159

Hyperammonemia due to urea cycle enzyme deficiency - 4

decrease protein in diet
benzoate + phenylbutyrate
lactulose

160

Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency

restrict proteins

161

Orotic aciduria

uridine (inhibits CPS II)

162

Lesch Nyhan

allopurinol
Febuxostat

163

Gout - acute attack

colchicine (blocks PMN chemotaxis by affecting microtubules)

probenecid - only for patients w/ good renal function

164

Porphobilinogen deaminase

glucose + heme (inhibits ALAS)

165

maple syrup urine disease

decrease isoleucine, leucine, valine
increase thiamine

166

homocystinuria

pyridoxine (B6)

167

nitroprusside OD

Sodium thiosulfate (sulfur) since Nitroprusside is initially metabolized to cyanide)

168

Conn syndrome (hyperaldosteronism)

Spironolactone or Eplerenone (fewer ADR) - both aldosterone antagonists

169

partial seizures (simple + complex)

carbamazepine

170

myoclonic seizures

valproic acid

171

Tourette Syndrome

Haloperidol

172

serotonin syndrome

Cyproheptadine - antihistamine w/ anti-serotonergic properties

173

Psychosis

Haloperidol

174

ascites secondary to cirrhosis

furosemide + spironolactone

175

hepatic encephalopathy

lactulose

176

Wilson's disease

penicillamine chelation (removes excess copper from tissues)
Trientine

177

hemochromatosis
Multiple blood transfusions
Iron poisoning etc

deferoxamine - chelating agent

178

hepatic adenomas

discontinuation of oral contraceptives or anabolic steroid use

179

barbituates OD - CNS depression

supportive
- gastric pump
- decrease gastric absorption
- forced alkaline diuresis (diuretic + urinary alkalinization)

180

salicylate OD

supportive, gastric pump, decrease gastric absorption
forced alkaline diuresis (diuretic + urinary alkalinization)

181

initial treatment for septic arthritis (while waiting for lab results)

ceftriaxone (usually due to gonococcus)

182

neuroleptic malignant syndrome

dantrolene or D2 agonist) o

183

esophageal varices rupture

endoscopic ligation AND octreotide (somatostatin analog - inhibits release of vasodilator hormones, resulting in splanchnic vasoconstriction)

184

High LDL (hypercholesterolemia)

Statin + Ezetimibe (LC-ES)

185

High TG (hypertriglyceridemia)

Statins + Fibrates (TSF)

186

Low HDL

Niacin

187

Inflammatory traveler's diarrhea

ciprofloxacin (fluoroquinolone)

188

Ascaris, Enterobius, Ancycostoma

Mebendazole

189

Echinococcus granulosus (tapeworm)

Albendazole

190

Campylobacter jejeni

Erythromycin

191

Giardia lamblia

Metronidazole

192

diabetic peripheral neuropathy

Amytriptyline (TCA) *more common*
duloxetine (SSRI)