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Flashcards in FA - Key Associations Deck (164):
1

Actinic (solar) keratosis

Precursor to squamous cell carcinoma

2

Acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS injury

Cushing ulcer (increase intracranial pressure stimulates vagal gastric secretion)

3

Acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns

Curling ulcer (greatly reduced plasma volume results in sloughing of gastric mucosa)

4

Alternating areas of transmural inflammation and normal colon

Skip lesions (Crohn disease)

5

Aneurysm, dissecting

hypertension

6

Aortic aneurysm, abdominal and descending aorta

Atherosclerosis

7

Aortic aneurysm, arch

3° syphilis (syphilitic aortitis), vasa vasorum destruction

8

Aortic aneurysm, ascending

Marfan syndrome (idiopathic cystic medial degeneration)

9

Atrophy of the mammillary bodies

Wernicke encephalopathy (thiamine deficiency causing ataxia, ophthalmoplegia, and confusi

10

Autosplenectomy (fibrosis and shrinkage)

Sickle cell anemia (hemoglobin S)

11

Bacteria associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and stomach cancer

H. pylori

12

Bacterial meningitis (adults and elderly)

Streptococcus pneumoniae

13

Bacterial meningitis (newborns and kids)

Newborns: Group B streptococcus, E.coli

Kids: S. pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis

14

Benign melanocytic nevus

Spitz nevus (most common in 1st two decades)

15

Bleeding disorder with GpIb deficiency

Bernard-Soulier syndrome (defect in platelet adhesion to von Willebrand factor)

16

Brain tumor (adults)

Supratentorial:
metastasis >
astrocytoma (including GBM) > meningioma >
schwannoma

MaMs

17

Brain tumor (kids)

Infratentorial:
medulloblastoma (cerebellum) or

supratentorial: craniopharyngioma

18

Breast cancer

Infiltrating ductal carcinoma

19

Breast mass

Fibrocystic change, carcinoma (in postmenopausal women)

20

Breast tumor (benign)

Fibroadenoma

21

Cardiac 1° tumor (kids)

Rhabdomyoma, often seen in tuberous sclerosis

22

Cardiac manifestation of lupus

Libman-Sacks endocarditis (nonbacterial, affecting both sides of mitral valve)

23

Cardiac tumor (adults)

Metastasis, 1° myxoma (4:1 left to right atrium; “ball and valve”)

24

Cerebellar tonsillar herniation

Chiari II malformation

25

Chronic arrhythmia

Atrial fibrillation (associated with high risk of emboli)

26

Chronic atrophic gastritis (autoimmune)

Predisposition to gastric carcinoma (can also cause pernicious anemia)

27

Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina

DES exposure in utero

DES is a synthetic estrogen that used to be given to women prevent miscarriage, premature labor, and related complications of pregnancy.

28

Compression fracture

Osteoporosis
type I: postmenopausal woman; type II: elderly man or woman

29

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, hypotension

21-hydroxylase deficiency

30

Congenital cardiac anomaly

VSD

31

Congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (black liver)

Dubin-Johnson syndrome (inability of hepatocytes to secrete conjugated bilirubin into bile)

32

Constrictive pericarditis

TB (developing world)
SLE (developed world)

33

Coronary artery involved in thrombosis

LAD > RCA > LCA

34

Cretinism

Iodine deficit/hypothyroidism

35

Cushing syndrome

36

Cyanosis (early; less common)

Tetralogy of Fallot
Transposition of great vessels
Truncus arteriosus

37

Cyanosis (late; more common)

VSD, ASD, PDA

38

Death in CML

Blast crisis

39

Death in SLE

Lupus nephropathy

40

Dementia

Alzheimer disease, multiple infarcts

41

Demyelinating disease in young women

Multiple sclerosis

42

DIC

Severe sepsis, obstetric complications, cancer, burns, trauma, major surgery

43

Dietary deficit

Iron

44

Diverticulum in pharynx

Zenker diverticulum (diagnosed by barium swallow)

45

Ejection click

Aortic/pulmonic stenosis

46

Esophageal cancer

Squamous cell carcinoma (worldwide); adenocarcinoma (U.S.)

47

Food poisoning (exotoxin mediated)

S. aureus, B. cereus

48

Glomerulonephritis (adults)

Berger disease (IgA nephropathy)

49

Gynecologic malignancy

Endometrial carcinoma (most common in U.S.)

cervical carcinoma (most common worldwide)

50

Heart murmur, congenital

Mitral valve prolapse

51

Heart valve in bacterial endocarditis

Mitral > aortic (rheumatic fever), tricuspid (IV drug abuse)

52

Helminth infection (U.S.)

Enterobius vermicularis
Ascaris lumbricoides

53

Hematoma—epidural

Rupture of middle meningeal artery (trauma; lentiform shaped)

54

Hematoma—subdural

Rupture of bridging veins (crescent shaped)

55

Hemochromatosis

- Multiple blood transfusions
- Hereditary HFE mutation (can result in CHF, “bronze diabetes,” and increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma)

56

Hepatocellular carcinoma

Cirrhotic liver (associated with hepatitis B and C and with alcoholism)

57

Hereditary bleeding disorder

von Willebrand disease

58

Hereditary harmless jaundice

Gilbert syndrome (benign congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia)

59

HLA-B27

Ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis, ulcerative colitis, psoriatic arthritis

60

HLA-DR3 or -DR4

Diabetes mellitus type 1, rheumatoid arthritis, SLE

61

Holosystolic murmur

VSD, tricuspid regurgitation, mitral regurgitation

62

Hypercoagulability, endothelial damage, blood stasis

Virchow triad (results in venous thrombosis)

63

Hypertension, 2°

Renal disease

64

Hypoparathyroidism

Accidental excision during thyroidectomy

65

Hypopituitarism

Pituitary adenoma (usually benign tumor)

66

Infection 2° to blood transfusion

Hepatitis C

67

Infections in chronic granulomatous disease

Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Aspergillus (catalase +)

68

Intellectual disability

Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome

69

Kidney stones

Calcium = radiopaque

Struvite (ammonium) = radiopaque (formed by urease +
organisms such as Proteus vulgaris or Staphylococcus)

Uric acid = radiolucent

70

Late cyanotic shunt (uncorrected left --> right becomes right --> left)

Eisenmenger syndrome (caused by ASD, VSD, PDA; result in pulmonary HTN and polycythemia)

71

Liver disease

Alcoholic cirrhosis

72

Lysosomal storage disease

Gaucher disease

73

Male cancer

Prostatic carcinoma

74

Malignancy associated with noninfectious fever

Hodgkin lymphoma

75

Malignancy (kids)

ALL, medulloblastoma (cerebellum)

76

Metastases to bone

Prostate, breast > lung > thyroid

77

Metastases to brain

Lung > breast > genitourinary > melanoma > GI

78

Metastases to liver

Colon >> stomach, pancreas

79

Mitochondrial inheritance

Disease occurs in both males and females, inherited through females only

80

Mitral valve stenosis

Rheumatic heart disease

81

Mixed (UMN and LMN) motor neuron disease

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

82

Myocarditis

Coxsackie B

83

Nephrotic syndrome (adults)

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

84

Nephrotic syndrome (kids)

Minimal change disease

85

Neuron migration failure

Kallmann syndrome (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia)

86

Nosocomial pneumonia

Klebsiella, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa

87

Obstruction of male urinary tract

BPH

88

Opening snap

Mitral stenosis

89

Opportunistic infection in AIDS

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia

90

Osteomyelitis

S. aureus

91

Osteomyelitis in sickle cell disease

Salmonella

92

Osteomyelitis with IV drug use

Pseudomonas, S. aureus

93

Ovarian metastasis from gastric carcinoma or breast cancer

Krukenberg tumor (mucin-secreting signet-ring cells)

94

Ovarian tumor (benign, bilateral)

Serous cystadenoma

95

Ovarian tumor (malignant)

Serous cystadenocarcinoma

96

Pancreatitis (acute)

Gallstones, alcohol

97

Pancreatitis (chronic)

Alcohol (adults), cystic fibrosis (kids)

98

Patient with ALL /CLL /AML /CML

ALL: child
CLL: adult > 60
AML: adult ∼ 65
CML: adult 30–60

99

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae

100

Philadelphia chromosome t(9;22) (bcr-abl)

CML (may sometimes be associated with ALL/AML)

101

Pituitary tumor

Prolactinoma, somatotropic “acidophilic” adenoma

102

1° amenorrhea

Turner syndrome (45,XO)

103

1° bone tumor (adults)

Multiple myeloma

104

1° hyperaldosteronism

Adenoma of adrenal cortex

105

1° hyperparathyroidism

Adenomas, hyperplasia, carcinoma

106

1° liver cancer

Hepatocellular carcinoma (chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, hemochromatosis, α1-antitrypsin deficiency)

107

Pulmonary hypertension

COPD

108

Recurrent inflammation/thrombosis of small/medium vessels in extremities

Buerger disease (strongly associated with tobacco)

109

Renal tumor

Renal cell carcinoma: associated with VHL and cigarette smoking; paraneoplastic syndromes (EPO, renin, PTH, ACTH)

110

Right heart failure due to a pulmonary cause

Cor pulmonale

111

S3 (protodiastolic gallop)

increased ventricular filling (left-to-right shunt, mitral regurgitation, LV failure [CHF])

112

S4 (presystolic gallop)

Stiff/hypertrophic ventricle (aortic stenosis, restrictive cardiomyopathy)

113

2° hyperparathyroidism

Hypocalcemia of chronic kidney disease

114

Sexually transmitted disease

Chlamydia (usually coinfected with gonorrhea)

115

SIADH

Small cell carcinoma of the lung

116

Site of diverticula

Sigmoid colon

117

Sites of atherosclerosis

Abdominal aorta > coronary artery > popliteal artery > carotid artery

118

Stomach cancer

Adenocarcinoma

119

Stomach ulcerations and high gastrin levels

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (gastrinoma of duodenum or pancreas)

120

t(14;18)

Follicular lymphomas (bcl-2 activation)

121

t(8;14)

Burkitt lymphoma (c-myc activation)

122

t(9;22)

Philadelphia chromosome, CML (bcr-abl fusion)

123

Temporal arteritis

Risk of ipsilateral blindness due to thrombosis of ophthalmic artery; polymyalgia rheumatica

124

Testicular tumor

Seminoma (malignant, radiosensitive)

125

Thyroid cancer

Papillary carcinoma

126

Tumor in women

Leiomyoma (estrogen dependent, not precancerous)

127

Tumor of infancy

Hemangioma (usually regresses spontaneously by childhood)

128

Tumor of the adrenal medulla (adults)

Pheochromocytoma (usually benign)

129

Tumor of the adrenal medulla (kids)

Neuroblastoma (malignant)

130

Type of Hodgkin

Nodular sclerosis (vs. mixed cellularity, lymphocytic predominance, lymphocytic depletion)

131

Type of non-Hodgkin

Diffuse large cell

132

UTI

E. coli, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (young women)

133

Viral encephalitis affecting temporal lobe

HSV-1

134

Vitamin deficiency (U.S.)

Folate (pregnant women are at high risk; body stores only 3- to 4-month supply; prevents neural tube defects)

135

acanthocyte

liver dz, aß-lipoproteinemia (cholesterol dysregulation)

136

basophilic stippling

ACD, OH abuse, lead poisioning, thalassemia

137

bite cell

g6pd deficiency

138

elliptocyte

hereditary elliptocytosis

139

macro-ovalocyte

megaloblastic anemia, marrow failure

140

ringed sideroblast

sideroblastic anemia, excess Fe

141

schistocyte, helmet cell

DIC, TTP/HUS, traumatic hemolysis (mechanical heart valve)
microangiopathic hemolytic anemia

142

spherocyte

hereditary spherocytosis

143

teardrop

myelofibrosis

144

target

HbC
asplenia
liver dz
thalassemia

"HALT" said the hunter to his target

145

heinz bodies

g6pD

146

howell-jolly bodies

hyposplenia/asplenia (ie sickle cell)

147

NT ∆'s with alzheimer's dz

decr. ACh

148

NT ∆'s with anxiety

incr. NE
decr. GABA, 5HT

149

NT ∆'s with depression

decr. NE, 5HT, dopamine

150

NT ∆'s with huntingtons

incr. dopamine
decr. GABA, ACh

151

NT ∆'s with Parkinson's

incr. ACh, 5HT
decr. dopamine

152

NT ∆'s with schizophrenia

incr. dopamine

153

22q11 syndrome cardiac findings

truncus arteriosus, tet. of fallot

154

cardiac findings in down syndrome

asd, vsd, av septal defect (endocardial cushions)

155

cardiac findings in congenital rubella

septal defects, pda, pulmonary artery stenosis

156

cardiac findings in turner syndrome

bicuspid aortic valve, coarctation (pre-ductal)

157

cardiac findings in marfans

MVP, aortic aneurysm + dissection, aortic regurg

158

cardiac findings in infant of diabetic mother

transposition of the great vessels

159

ECG in anterior wall (LAD)

V1-V4

160

ECG in anteroseptal (LAD)

V1-V2

161

ECG in anterolateral (LAD, LCX)

V4-V6

162

Lateral wall (LCX)

I, aVL

163

Inferior wall (RCA)

II, III, aVF

164

ß blocker OD remedy

glucagon