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Flashcards in FA Resp Pharm Deck (24):
1

Reversible inhibitors of H1 histamine receptors that enter CNS

H1 blockers (1st generation)

2

Reversible inhibitors of H1 histamine receptors that do not enter CNS (much)

H1 blockers (2nd generation)

3

Expectorant - thins respiratory secretions; does not suppress cough reflex

Guaifenesin

4

Mucolytic - can loosen mucous plugs in CF patients. Also used as an antidote for acetaminophen overdose.

N-acetylcysteine

5

Antitussive (antagonizes NMDA glutamate receptors). Synthetic codeine codeine analog. Has mild opioid effect when used in excess. Mild abuse potential

Dextromethorphan

6

Given for dextromethorphan overdose.

Naloxone

7

Sympathomimetic alpha-agonistic nonprescription nasal decongestants

Pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine

8

Relaxes bronchial smooth muscle (beta2--> increased cAMP). use during acute asthma exacerbation.

Albuterol

9

long-acting b2 agonists given for asthma prophylaxis

Salmeterol, formoterol

10

Likely causes bronchodilation by inhibiting phosphodiesterase --> increased cAMP levels due to decreased cAMP hydrolysis.

Theophylline (methylxanthine)

11

Competitive block of muscarinic receptors, preventing bronchoconstriction

Ipratropium

12

Long-acting muscarinic antagonist

Tiotropium

13

Inhibit the synthesis of virtually all cytokines. Inactivate NF-kappaB, the transcription factor that induces the production of TNF-alpha and other inflammatory agents. 1st line therapy for chronic asthma

Beclomethasone, fluticasone (corticosteroids)

14

Block leukotriene receptors, esp good for ASA-induced asthma

Montelukast, zafirlukast (antileukotrienes)

15

5-lipoxygenase pathway inhibitor. Blocks conversion of arachidonic acid to leukotrienes.

Zileuton

16

Monoclonal anti-IgE antibody. Binds mostly unbound serum IgE and blocks binding to Fc-epsilon-RI. Used in allergic asthma resistant to inhaled steroids and long-acting beta-2 agonists

Omalizumab

17

Muscarinic receptor agonist. Used in bronchial provocation challenge to help diagnose asthma.

Methacholine

18

Used to treat pulmonary arterial HTN. Competitively antagonizes endothelin-1 receptors, decreased pulmonary vascular resistance.

Bosentan

19

1st generation H1 blockers (3)

diphenhydramine, dimenhydrinate, chlorpheniramine

20

2nd generation H1 blockers (4)

loratadine, fexofenadine, desloratadine, cetirizine

21

Adverse effects of salmeterol & formoterol

tremor, arrhythmia

22

Adverse effects of theophylline (methylxanthine)

tachyarrhythmia, seizure (narrow TI)p metabolized by cytochrome P450; blocks actions of adenosine

23

tx: acute asthma exacerbation

albuterol

24

tx: chronic asthma

inhaled corticosteroids (beclomethasone, fluticasone)