Flashcards in FA Resp Pharm Deck (24):
Reversible inhibitors of H1 histamine receptors that enter CNS
H1 blockers (1st generation)
Reversible inhibitors of H1 histamine receptors that do not enter CNS (much)
H1 blockers (2nd generation)
Expectorant - thins respiratory secretions; does not suppress cough reflex
Mucolytic - can loosen mucous plugs in CF patients. Also used as an antidote for acetaminophen overdose.
Antitussive (antagonizes NMDA glutamate receptors). Synthetic codeine codeine analog. Has mild opioid effect when used in excess. Mild abuse potential
Given for dextromethorphan overdose.
Sympathomimetic alpha-agonistic nonprescription nasal decongestants
Relaxes bronchial smooth muscle (beta2--> increased cAMP). use during acute asthma exacerbation.
long-acting b2 agonists given for asthma prophylaxis
Likely causes bronchodilation by inhibiting phosphodiesterase --> increased cAMP levels due to decreased cAMP hydrolysis.
Competitive block of muscarinic receptors, preventing bronchoconstriction
Long-acting muscarinic antagonist
Inhibit the synthesis of virtually all cytokines. Inactivate NF-kappaB, the transcription factor that induces the production of TNF-alpha and other inflammatory agents. 1st line therapy for chronic asthma
Beclomethasone, fluticasone (corticosteroids)
Block leukotriene receptors, esp good for ASA-induced asthma
Montelukast, zafirlukast (antileukotrienes)
5-lipoxygenase pathway inhibitor. Blocks conversion of arachidonic acid to leukotrienes.
Monoclonal anti-IgE antibody. Binds mostly unbound serum IgE and blocks binding to Fc-epsilon-RI. Used in allergic asthma resistant to inhaled steroids and long-acting beta-2 agonists
Muscarinic receptor agonist. Used in bronchial provocation challenge to help diagnose asthma.
Used to treat pulmonary arterial HTN. Competitively antagonizes endothelin-1 receptors, decreased pulmonary vascular resistance.
1st generation H1 blockers (3)
diphenhydramine, dimenhydrinate, chlorpheniramine
2nd generation H1 blockers (4)
loratadine, fexofenadine, desloratadine, cetirizine
Adverse effects of salmeterol & formoterol
Adverse effects of theophylline (methylxanthine)
tachyarrhythmia, seizure (narrow TI)p metabolized by cytochrome P450; blocks actions of adenosine
tx: acute asthma exacerbation