FAC40: Energy Balance Disorders in Ruminants Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in FAC40: Energy Balance Disorders in Ruminants Deck (24):

What are the energy deficiency syndromes in cattle (from least severe to most severe)?

Fatty liver syndrome > subclinical ketosis > clinical ketosis > chronic ketosis  >fat cow syndrome


What is the cause of fatty liver syndrome?

Farry infiltration of the liver usually due to excessive fat mobilisation in early lactation


What issues are caused by fatty liver syndrome?

Increased incidence of metabolic disease, poor fertility, depressed milk production


What is another name for ketosis?



What is ketosis?

Impaired metabolism of carbohydrates and VFAs


When does ketosis usually occur and why?

Occurs in early lactation because there is a large energy supply required by mammary glands in early lactation for milk production


Describe how a high-yielding dairy cow gets to ketosis.

  • Negative energy balance due to demands of udder
  • Shortage of oxaloacetate for use in TCA cycle
  • Mobilisation of fat reserves
  • Metabolic pathways lead to the production of ketone bodies (acetoacetate, B-hydroxybutyrate, acetone)


Simple describe the aetiology of ketosis.

Reduced appetite, starvation, or high production leads to inadequate energy supply leading to ketosis


What are the risk factors for ketosis?

  • Inadequate energy content of the ration (Type 1)
  • Inadequate intake of the diet
  • Poor utilisation of the diet
  • Ketogenic foods (butyric silage)
  • Poor transition cow nutrition (type 2) 
  • Secondary to other disease


What are the different forms of ketosis?

Wasting form

Nervous form (hypoglycaemic encephalopathy)


How do you diagnose ketosis?

Smell of ketone bodies on cow's breath

Clinical biochem

  • Lowered blood glucose levels
  • Mobilisation of body fat - elevated NEFA
  • Ketone body formation - elevated BHBA


What is Rothera's Test?

It is a Cowside test for ketosis where you test the milk (positive milk turns pink or purple)


When you are treating ketosis, what are your goals?

  • Restore blood glucose levels
  • Replenish oxaloacetate levels
  • Increase dietary gluconeogenic precursors (propionate)
  • Correct predisposing factors


How do you restore the blood glucose levels when treating ketosis?

400 ml of 40% glucose solution IV


How do you replenish glucose precursors when treating ketosis?

Oral administration

  • Propylene glycol
  • Propylene glycol +cobalt
  • Sodium propionate
  • Glycerol (but ketogenic)


What hormonal therapy can you give to treat ketosis?

Glucocorticoids like dexamethasone, betamethasone to stimulate gluconeogenesis


What other therapies are a good idea to treat ketosis with?

VitB12/cobalt preparations because they are required for metabolism of proprionate


Besides the development of ketosis, why is negative energy balance in early lactation a problem?

  • Reduce milk production
  • Reduced milk quality
  • Increased incidence of clinical disease
  • Reduced fertility
  • Immunosuppression


What is fat cow syndrome?

An exacerbation of ketosis that has a high mortality


What are common reasons for sub-optimal energy intakes?

  • Management of high yielding cows on summer grazing
  • Overestimation of the values of autumn grass
  • Overestimation of forage quality
  • Overestimation of dry matter intakes


How do you prevent subclinical ketosis?

Good dry cow management

Suitable milking cow ration

Use of monensin

Maximise dry matter intake

Good nutritional management

Ensure cow comfort



What is monensin?

Alters micorbial fermentation in rumen to favour proprionate production


When do you usually come across pregnancy toxaemia?

Last month of pregnancy


What causes pregnancy toxaemia?

The rapid growth of the foetus in late pregnancy results in a marked increase in glucose requirements of the gravid uterus

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