What are the energy deficiency syndromes in cattle (from least severe to most severe)?
Fatty liver syndrome > subclinical ketosis > clinical ketosis > chronic ketosis >fat cow syndrome
What is the cause of fatty liver syndrome?
Farry infiltration of the liver usually due to excessive fat mobilisation in early lactation
What issues are caused by fatty liver syndrome?
Increased incidence of metabolic disease, poor fertility, depressed milk production
What is another name for ketosis?
What is ketosis?
Impaired metabolism of carbohydrates and VFAs
When does ketosis usually occur and why?
Occurs in early lactation because there is a large energy supply required by mammary glands in early lactation for milk production
Describe how a high-yielding dairy cow gets to ketosis.
- Negative energy balance due to demands of udder
- Shortage of oxaloacetate for use in TCA cycle
- Mobilisation of fat reserves
- Metabolic pathways lead to the production of ketone bodies (acetoacetate, B-hydroxybutyrate, acetone)
Simple describe the aetiology of ketosis.
Reduced appetite, starvation, or high production leads to inadequate energy supply leading to ketosis
What are the risk factors for ketosis?
- Inadequate energy content of the ration (Type 1)
- Inadequate intake of the diet
- Poor utilisation of the diet
- Ketogenic foods (butyric silage)
- Poor transition cow nutrition (type 2)
- Secondary to other disease
What are the different forms of ketosis?
Nervous form (hypoglycaemic encephalopathy)
How do you diagnose ketosis?
Smell of ketone bodies on cow's breath
- Lowered blood glucose levels
- Mobilisation of body fat - elevated NEFA
- Ketone body formation - elevated BHBA
What is Rothera's Test?
It is a Cowside test for ketosis where you test the milk (positive milk turns pink or purple)
When you are treating ketosis, what are your goals?
- Restore blood glucose levels
- Replenish oxaloacetate levels
- Increase dietary gluconeogenic precursors (propionate)
- Correct predisposing factors
How do you restore the blood glucose levels when treating ketosis?
400 ml of 40% glucose solution IV
How do you replenish glucose precursors when treating ketosis?
- Propylene glycol
- Propylene glycol +cobalt
- Sodium propionate
- Glycerol (but ketogenic)
What hormonal therapy can you give to treat ketosis?
Glucocorticoids like dexamethasone, betamethasone to stimulate gluconeogenesis
What other therapies are a good idea to treat ketosis with?
VitB12/cobalt preparations because they are required for metabolism of proprionate
Besides the development of ketosis, why is negative energy balance in early lactation a problem?
- Reduce milk production
- Reduced milk quality
- Increased incidence of clinical disease
- Reduced fertility
What is fat cow syndrome?
An exacerbation of ketosis that has a high mortality
What are common reasons for sub-optimal energy intakes?
- Management of high yielding cows on summer grazing
- Overestimation of the values of autumn grass
- Overestimation of forage quality
- Overestimation of dry matter intakes
How do you prevent subclinical ketosis?
Good dry cow management
Suitable milking cow ration
Use of monensin
Maximise dry matter intake
Good nutritional management
Ensure cow comfort
What is monensin?
Alters micorbial fermentation in rumen to favour proprionate production
When do you usually come across pregnancy toxaemia?
Last month of pregnancy
What causes pregnancy toxaemia?
The rapid growth of the foetus in late pregnancy results in a marked increase in glucose requirements of the gravid uterus