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Flashcards in Face and Scalp Deck (64):
1

All the muscles of facial expression are innervated by the ___ nerve, which is derived from the ___ pharyngeal arch

facial; 2nd

2

This muscle of facial expression encircles the eye and functions to close eyelids

orbicularis oculi

3

This muscle of facial expression is deep to the eyebrows, and draws the eyebrows to the midline

corrugator supercilii

4

This muscle of facial expression is at the root of the nose and is active when a person frowns

procerus

5

This muscle of facial expression is the largest of the three nasal group muscles. It consists of two parts: a transverse and alar part

nasalis

6

This muscle of facial expression assists in widening the nares

depressor septi nasi

7

This muscle of facial expression encircles the mouth and is active in pursing the lips, narrowing the mouth, and closing the lips

orbicularis oris

8

This is the muscular portion of the cheek, deep to the other muscles of facial expression. It's active in pressing the cheeks against the teeth

buccinator

9

This muscle of facial expression (oral - lower group) is the depressor of the lower lip

depressor labii inferioris

10

This muscle of facial expression (oral - lower group) is the depressor of the angle of the mouth

depressor anguli oris

11

This muscle of facial expression (oral - lower group) is the deepest of the lower group of oral muscles and positions the lip during drinking or pouting

mentalis

12

This muscle of facial expression (oral -upper group) is active in grinning, extends the corner of the mouth laterally

Risorius

13

This muscle(s) of facial expression (oral -upper group) has an origin from the lateral surface of the zygomatic bone and is active in smiling

Zgomaticus major and minor

14

This muscle of facial expression (oral -upper group) raises the angle of the mouth, and is the deepest of the upper group of oral muscles

levator anguli oris

15

This muscle of facial expression (oral -upper group) raises the upper lip, and deepens the furrow between the nose

levator labii superioris

16

This muscle of facial expression (oral -upper group) is a lifter of the upper lip and the wing of the nose - flaring of nostrils

levator labii superioris alaque nasi

17

This muscle of facial expression is a large thin sheet found in the superficial fascia of the neck, origin is just below the clavicle to arise to the mandible, action: tenses the skin of the neck, and can depress the lower lip and corner of the mouth

platysma

18

This muscle of facial expression is on the forehead and inserts into galea aponeurotica. Its action is to move the scalp and wrinkle the forehead

occipitofrontalis

19

There are three auricular muscles: anterior, superior, and posterior. Give the action of each one.

anterior: elevates and moves the ear forward
superior: elevates the ear
posterior: retracts and elevates the ear

20

The part of the facial nerve that innervates the muscles of facial expression leaves the posterior cranial fossa through the internal auditory meatus and then exits the skull by the ____ foramen

stylomastoid

21

After leaving the stylomastoid foramen, the facial nerve enters the substance of the ___ gland and forms a plexus

parotid

22

Name the branches from the plexus formed by the facial nerve and what they innervate

hint: A Tiny Zebra Bit My Cheek

posterior Auricular - posterior auricular muscle and occipitofrontalis

Temporal branch - orbicularis oculi

Zygomatic branch - levator labii superioris

Buccal branch - buccinator

Mandibular branch - orbicularis oris

Cervical branch - platysma

23

Another branch from the facial nerve is the nerve to stylohyoid which also innervates the ___ belly of ____

posterior digastric

24

The facial nerve gives a sensory branch via the ___ ____ nerve which is involved in taste from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue

chorda tympani

25

The facial nerve has a parasympathetic branch to what glands?

the lacrimal gland, mucosal glands of the nasal and oral cavities

26

Damage to the facial nerve on one side will result in paralysis of the muscles of the face on that side. This is called what?

Bell's Palsy

27

The trigeminal nerve is a cranial nerve in front of the ear, from top of head to middle of mandible. What is it involved in?

sensory innervation

28

The trigeminal nerve has a small motor and a large sensory compartment and is derived from the __ pharyngeal arch

first

29

Neurons of the motor fibers from the trigeminal nerve are inside the ___

pons

30

Neurons of the sensory fibers from the trigeminal nerve are outside of the brain, although inside the cranial cavity. It is called the ___ ganglion

trigeminal (or semilunar)

31

In regards to the trigeminal nerve and its ophthalmic division (V1) what area does the supraorbital branch innervate?

most of the skin over forehead and anterior scalp

32

In regards to the trigeminal nerve and its ophthalmic division (V1) what area does the supratrochlear branch innervate?

medial region of forehead

33

What are the three main branches of the Ophthalmic division (V1) of the trigeminal nerve?

frontal, lacrimal, and nasociliary nerves

34

The supraorbital and supratrochlear nerves are branches of the ___ nerve (one of main branches of ophthalmic division)

frontal

35

In regards to the trigeminal nerve and its ophthalmic division (V1) what area does the infratrochlear branch innervate?

medial side of eyelids, side and bridge of nose

36

In regards to the trigeminal nerve and its ophthalmic division (V1) what area does the lacrimal branch innervate?

lateral part of upper eyelid

37

In regards to the trigeminal nerve and its ophthalmic division (V1) what area does the external nasal branch innervate?

anterior portion of the nose

38

The infratrochlear and anterior ethmoidal nerve are branches of the ____ nerve (one of the main branches of the ophthalmic division)

nasociliary

39

In regards to the trigeminal nerve and its maxillary division (V2) what area does the infraorbital branch innervate?

from medial side of lower eyelid, side of nose, cheek, upper lip

40

In regards to the trigeminal nerve and its maxillary division (V2) what area does the zygotmaticofacial branch innervate?

from lateral corner of eyelids

41

In regards to the trigeminal nerve and its maxillary division (V2) what area does the zygomaticotemporal branch innervate?

from anterior part of scalp around temple

42

In regards to the trigeminal nerve and its mandibular division (V3) what area does the mental branch innervate?

chin and lower lip to angle of mouth - continuation of the inferior alveolar nerve

43

In regards to the trigeminal nerve and its mandibular division (V3) what area does the auriculotemporal branch innervate?

anterior part of hear, meatus, tympanic membrane, most of scalp in temple area

44

Trigeminal neuralgia mostly affects the ___ division, then the ____ division, and least likely, the ____ divison

maxillary; mandibular; ophthalmic

45

Most of the arterial supply to the face is branches from which artery?

ECA

46

The following branches are from which artery?:
inferior labial branch
superior labial branch
angular branch
lateral nasal branch

facial artery - from the ECA

47

The superficial temporal artery is a branch from the ECA. It enters the temporal fossa giving off the ___ ___ artery

transverse facial

48

This artery is a branch off of the ECA. It gives off the infraorbital artery, buccal artery, and mental artery.

maxillary artery

49

The ophthalmic artery is a branch off of what?

ICA

50

What are the branches from the ophthalmic artery?

lacrimal artery, dorsal nasal artery, supraorbital artery, supratrochlear artery

51

The supraorbital and supratrochlear veins are branches of the ___ vein. They communicate with the ____ veins (which communicates with the cavernous sinus)

angular; ophthalmic

52

The transverse facial vein accompanies the transverse facial artery to drain into the ___ ___ vein

suprficial temporal

53

The superficial temporal vein unites with the ___ vein to form the ____ vein

maxillary; retromandibular

54

The posterior branch of the retromandibular vein will unite with the ___ ____ vein to form the ___ ___ vein

posterior auricular; external jugular

55

In regards to clinical correlations with veins in the face, where is the triangle of danger?

between root of the nose and corners of the mouth - never squeeze pimples here; infection can be pushed into brain

56

Why do relatively small cuts bleed a lot on the scalp?

because the CT is thick, it tends to keep veins open to prevent collapse

57

Veins of the scalp are in direct communication with ___ veins and through these veins with veins of the brain

diploic

58

What is the composition of the scalp?

neumonic is SCALP (lol)

Skin
Connective tissue
Aponeurosis of occiptofrontalis muscle
Loose ct
Periosteum

59

Sensory innervation of the scalp comes from two sources: a cranial nerve and 4 spinal nerves. Name them

CN: trigeminal (V1, V2, and V3)
spinal nerves: Great auricular nerve, lesser occipital nerve, greater occipital nerve, third occipital nerve

60

The great auricular nerve is from the ventral rami of ___-___ and supplies the skin where?

C2-C3; in front of ear

61

The lesser occipital nerve is from the ventral rami of ___-___ and supplies the skin where?

C2-C3; behind ear

62

The greater occipital nerve is from the dorsal ramus of ___ and innervates the what part of the scalp?

C2; posterior part of scalp to the level of the interauricular line

63

The third occipital nerve is from the dorsal ramus of ___ and innervates what area of the scalp?

C3; small area medial to the greater occipital nerve

64

The occipital vein drains the posterior aspect of the scalp and empties into the ____ plexus, which then drains in two direction, the ___ ___ vein and the ____ ___ plexus

suboccipital; deep cervical; vertebral venous