Flashcards in Face and Scalp Deck (64):
All the muscles of facial expression are innervated by the ___ nerve, which is derived from the ___ pharyngeal arch
This muscle of facial expression encircles the eye and functions to close eyelids
This muscle of facial expression is deep to the eyebrows, and draws the eyebrows to the midline
This muscle of facial expression is at the root of the nose and is active when a person frowns
This muscle of facial expression is the largest of the three nasal group muscles. It consists of two parts: a transverse and alar part
This muscle of facial expression assists in widening the nares
depressor septi nasi
This muscle of facial expression encircles the mouth and is active in pursing the lips, narrowing the mouth, and closing the lips
This is the muscular portion of the cheek, deep to the other muscles of facial expression. It's active in pressing the cheeks against the teeth
This muscle of facial expression (oral - lower group) is the depressor of the lower lip
depressor labii inferioris
This muscle of facial expression (oral - lower group) is the depressor of the angle of the mouth
depressor anguli oris
This muscle of facial expression (oral - lower group) is the deepest of the lower group of oral muscles and positions the lip during drinking or pouting
This muscle of facial expression (oral -upper group) is active in grinning, extends the corner of the mouth laterally
This muscle(s) of facial expression (oral -upper group) has an origin from the lateral surface of the zygomatic bone and is active in smiling
Zgomaticus major and minor
This muscle of facial expression (oral -upper group) raises the angle of the mouth, and is the deepest of the upper group of oral muscles
levator anguli oris
This muscle of facial expression (oral -upper group) raises the upper lip, and deepens the furrow between the nose
levator labii superioris
This muscle of facial expression (oral -upper group) is a lifter of the upper lip and the wing of the nose - flaring of nostrils
levator labii superioris alaque nasi
This muscle of facial expression is a large thin sheet found in the superficial fascia of the neck, origin is just below the clavicle to arise to the mandible, action: tenses the skin of the neck, and can depress the lower lip and corner of the mouth
This muscle of facial expression is on the forehead and inserts into galea aponeurotica. Its action is to move the scalp and wrinkle the forehead
There are three auricular muscles: anterior, superior, and posterior. Give the action of each one.
anterior: elevates and moves the ear forward
superior: elevates the ear
posterior: retracts and elevates the ear
The part of the facial nerve that innervates the muscles of facial expression leaves the posterior cranial fossa through the internal auditory meatus and then exits the skull by the ____ foramen
After leaving the stylomastoid foramen, the facial nerve enters the substance of the ___ gland and forms a plexus
Name the branches from the plexus formed by the facial nerve and what they innervate
hint: A Tiny Zebra Bit My Cheek
posterior Auricular - posterior auricular muscle and occipitofrontalis
Temporal branch - orbicularis oculi
Zygomatic branch - levator labii superioris
Buccal branch - buccinator
Mandibular branch - orbicularis oris
Cervical branch - platysma
Another branch from the facial nerve is the nerve to stylohyoid which also innervates the ___ belly of ____
The facial nerve gives a sensory branch via the ___ ____ nerve which is involved in taste from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue
The facial nerve has a parasympathetic branch to what glands?
the lacrimal gland, mucosal glands of the nasal and oral cavities
Damage to the facial nerve on one side will result in paralysis of the muscles of the face on that side. This is called what?
The trigeminal nerve is a cranial nerve in front of the ear, from top of head to middle of mandible. What is it involved in?
The trigeminal nerve has a small motor and a large sensory compartment and is derived from the __ pharyngeal arch
Neurons of the motor fibers from the trigeminal nerve are inside the ___
Neurons of the sensory fibers from the trigeminal nerve are outside of the brain, although inside the cranial cavity. It is called the ___ ganglion
trigeminal (or semilunar)
In regards to the trigeminal nerve and its ophthalmic division (V1) what area does the supraorbital branch innervate?
most of the skin over forehead and anterior scalp
In regards to the trigeminal nerve and its ophthalmic division (V1) what area does the supratrochlear branch innervate?
medial region of forehead
What are the three main branches of the Ophthalmic division (V1) of the trigeminal nerve?
frontal, lacrimal, and nasociliary nerves
The supraorbital and supratrochlear nerves are branches of the ___ nerve (one of main branches of ophthalmic division)
In regards to the trigeminal nerve and its ophthalmic division (V1) what area does the infratrochlear branch innervate?
medial side of eyelids, side and bridge of nose
In regards to the trigeminal nerve and its ophthalmic division (V1) what area does the lacrimal branch innervate?
lateral part of upper eyelid
In regards to the trigeminal nerve and its ophthalmic division (V1) what area does the external nasal branch innervate?
anterior portion of the nose
The infratrochlear and anterior ethmoidal nerve are branches of the ____ nerve (one of the main branches of the ophthalmic division)
In regards to the trigeminal nerve and its maxillary division (V2) what area does the infraorbital branch innervate?
from medial side of lower eyelid, side of nose, cheek, upper lip
In regards to the trigeminal nerve and its maxillary division (V2) what area does the zygotmaticofacial branch innervate?
from lateral corner of eyelids
In regards to the trigeminal nerve and its maxillary division (V2) what area does the zygomaticotemporal branch innervate?
from anterior part of scalp around temple
In regards to the trigeminal nerve and its mandibular division (V3) what area does the mental branch innervate?
chin and lower lip to angle of mouth - continuation of the inferior alveolar nerve
In regards to the trigeminal nerve and its mandibular division (V3) what area does the auriculotemporal branch innervate?
anterior part of hear, meatus, tympanic membrane, most of scalp in temple area
Trigeminal neuralgia mostly affects the ___ division, then the ____ division, and least likely, the ____ divison
maxillary; mandibular; ophthalmic
Most of the arterial supply to the face is branches from which artery?
The following branches are from which artery?:
inferior labial branch
superior labial branch
lateral nasal branch
facial artery - from the ECA
The superficial temporal artery is a branch from the ECA. It enters the temporal fossa giving off the ___ ___ artery
This artery is a branch off of the ECA. It gives off the infraorbital artery, buccal artery, and mental artery.
The ophthalmic artery is a branch off of what?
What are the branches from the ophthalmic artery?
lacrimal artery, dorsal nasal artery, supraorbital artery, supratrochlear artery
The supraorbital and supratrochlear veins are branches of the ___ vein. They communicate with the ____ veins (which communicates with the cavernous sinus)
The transverse facial vein accompanies the transverse facial artery to drain into the ___ ___ vein
The superficial temporal vein unites with the ___ vein to form the ____ vein
The posterior branch of the retromandibular vein will unite with the ___ ____ vein to form the ___ ___ vein
posterior auricular; external jugular
In regards to clinical correlations with veins in the face, where is the triangle of danger?
between root of the nose and corners of the mouth - never squeeze pimples here; infection can be pushed into brain
Why do relatively small cuts bleed a lot on the scalp?
because the CT is thick, it tends to keep veins open to prevent collapse
Veins of the scalp are in direct communication with ___ veins and through these veins with veins of the brain
What is the composition of the scalp?
neumonic is SCALP (lol)
Aponeurosis of occiptofrontalis muscle
Sensory innervation of the scalp comes from two sources: a cranial nerve and 4 spinal nerves. Name them
CN: trigeminal (V1, V2, and V3)
spinal nerves: Great auricular nerve, lesser occipital nerve, greater occipital nerve, third occipital nerve
The great auricular nerve is from the ventral rami of ___-___ and supplies the skin where?
C2-C3; in front of ear
The lesser occipital nerve is from the ventral rami of ___-___ and supplies the skin where?
C2-C3; behind ear
The greater occipital nerve is from the dorsal ramus of ___ and innervates the what part of the scalp?
C2; posterior part of scalp to the level of the interauricular line
The third occipital nerve is from the dorsal ramus of ___ and innervates what area of the scalp?
C3; small area medial to the greater occipital nerve