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Flashcards in FACS 136 FASHION RETAILING MIDTERM 2 Deck (10)
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What are the elements in visual merchandising?

a. Windows
b. Mannequins
c. Display fixturing
d. Lighting
e. Graphics & signage
f. Props & materials
g. Sound usage
h. Budget
i. Safety issue
j. Labor


Different type of Windows

1. Parallel-to-sidewalk windows:
a. most traditional
b. used by major department stores, flagship stores, downtown
c. stage- like settings
d. goal: attract more customers to enter store rather than promote particular merchandise
Ex. Macy’s in Union Square, Nordstrom outdoor windows
Corner windows:
a. window faces two perpendicular streets
b. double traffic exposure
c. retailer has to pay more money for rent
d. customers distracted by viewers (or bums, or traffic light) in other side
Angled windows:
a. more space for display
b. less selling space
c. feature more displays in less space
a. more displace space
b. deep & narrow store or store with minimum frontage or display space
c. less selling space
Windowless windows:
a. suitable for small stores, easy to handle whole store displace and show most merchandise to shoppers
b. state interior is part of store front presentation
c. ample open frontage
d. hard to secure merchandise
Ex. Kay Jewelers in mall
Shadow box windows:
a. stores that feature small items, jewelry
b. easy to change display


We talked about different kinds of mannequins in class. What are they?

A. Traditional human forms or realistic mannequins:
1. less excitement- not different from human
2. rely on wigs, make up, arm and leg positions
3. more appropriate to present formal clothing, business suits, wedding gowns
B. Stylized human forms- semi abstract mannequins:
1. same as traditional human forms at the reality of pose, the retention of human features
2. skin tone is different from human flesh, sculpted hair to give clay like feeling, sleek appearance
C. Futuristic human forms- abstract mannequins:
1. exaggerated look for a stylized form or unique coloration- no face
2. still relies on some version of the human form
D. Representational form- alternative:
1. inexpensive & easy to make needed adjustments
2. metal pipes, newspaper, wheat, a dress form
E. Other forms:
1. bra, bust, or pants form (ex. Hand form for engagement rings)
2. easy to change, setup, and can emphasize the promoted items
3. less expensive


As we know, merchandise fixtures can hold merchandise. What are the examples of merchandise fixtures? How do fashion retailers use them?

1.Floor cases
a.combination for storage ,display and counter jewelry.
b. glasses, expensive small items
2.Wall cases; a.basic items b.the challenge is how to entice shoppers to go to the wall. thats why they put sales items in the back to get the customers to pass the new merchandise

3.Island displays table cases (folded t shirts) , not attached to any wall. a.lead the route for shoppers b.closer and easier for shoppers to view c.island tables need maintenance all the time island cases are often used to highlight something


What are the two basic types of lighting sources & their characteristics?

1. Fluorescent:
a. most often used in interior ceiling, floor, and wall cases
b. cheaper, energy-saving
c. produce a flat, even blanket of light which offers few shadows and little depth or texture
2. Incandescence:
a. for warmth, emphasis, highlighting
b. give off heat


What are the examples of signage and graphics and characteristics of them?

A. Banners:
1. made of fabric, plastic, or paper
2.spell out a theme, deliver a message, define a department, or provide visual
excitement and color in the store
3. inexpensive
B. Wall signs:
1. sign on wall or column
2. permanency of sign, hard to change frequently
C. Backlit transparencies:
1. inexpensive, simplicity or production
2. powerful, exciting
D. Signs on glass:
1. difficult


What are the basic principles of design? (P.R.E.B.)

A. Balance
1. impression of equal distribution of weight
2. symmetrical balance v. asymmetrical
B. Emphasis
1. some item displace catches shopper’s attention
2. How to emphasize:
a. contrasting color (blue/orange)
b. light- spotlighting while the rest is dimly lit
c. repetition
d. size
C. Proportion- size
1. mannequins match window
2. merchandise matches tables
D. Rhythm
1. encourage eye to move from one item to another
2. continuous lines
3. gradation of line, color, shape


How do department stores, chain specialty stores, or boutique stores manage their visual merchandising, respectively?

A. Department stores:
1. in-house visual departments
2. unified approach is required across the whole store
3. plan 6 months before
4. kick-off seminar
5. visual merchandise direction book with merchandise presentation guidelines
B. Specialty chains
1. a centralized visual program
2. kits include: photograph, graphic presentation, signage
3. store manager or assistant is in charge of installation or at least one full-time display individual
C. Freelancers- one-unit operations
1. hire a freelancer who performs visual merchandise for a fee
2. charge an hourly fee or flat fee
3. freelancers work with store managers


What is markup and what is markdown?

Markup = Retail price – Wholesale price
Markdown = Original price- Final retail
-amount added to wholesale to make retail price
-needed to make profit
-amount of reduction
-retailers don’t want to markdown
-used because of buying errors, external factors (weather), store strategy discount stores


In class, we discussed about the factors that influence price point. What are they? How does each of the factors influence price point

A. Competition
1. Pricing Competition
2. More competitors, lower price
B. Merchandise Characteristics
1. Fashion Merchandise has a limited life expectancy, then sufficiently high
price to cover the losses attributed to their sudden demise
2. Seasonal Merchandise
markup more than other items to bring sufficient profit to cover the losses of the items that are left over
Pricing Considerations
C. Company Image and Policies
1. Prestigious image, full mark-up strategy
2. Some consumers like to pay a little extra for the “privilege”
D. Customer Profile
1. Price conscious
2. Upper-upper class pay little attention to price
E. Stock Turnover (how fast you sell your merchandise)
1. Definition - the # of times in a year the average inventory is sold.
F. Promotional Endeavors
1. To encourage more purchasing
2. Promotional dollars spent on advertising special events, and visual
merchandising may contribute to the store’s overhead expenses.
G. Services
*Free Services
*While there isn’t any extra cost to the customer service
H. Vulnerability to Shoplifiting
not only must the losses of shoplifting be considered but so must the cost
attributed to the protection of the merchandise
1. expensive items
a. items near entrances = higher mark-up
2. depts that are located near front - might have higher markups

J. Exclusive merchandise resources - fashion retailers are able to charge prices
that are higher for some styles because of their exclusive rights to the
1. Private Label Collections
2. Geographic exclusivity
3. Large quantity purchases