.Factors Affecting Pressure Groups & EU Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in .Factors Affecting Pressure Groups & EU Deck (35):
1

What 5 factors depend on a pressure groups success?

a)Groups aims
b)Group status
c)Group methods
d)Group specialism and expertise
e)Group resources

2

What is an example of high and low achievability of a pressure groups aim?

high - renovating a children's play area
low - securing a global ban on nuclear power

3

What is an example of high and low public receptivity of a pressure groups aim?

high- saving an endangered species
low - improving conditions in prisons

4

What are the two types of group status as an example?

insider/outsider

5

What are examples of bad and good pressure group methods for attempting to change policy ?

good - lobbying the executive
bad - illegal direct action

6

Name 3 examples of pressure groups with group specialism and expertise

-RoSPA
-RSPB
-Electoral Reform Society

7

What are the 2 types of a pressure groups resources?

-Human
-Material

8

What 3 benefits are there from the size of a groups human resources?

-size of membership as a large membership can help provide finance
-bigger groups can organise more effective mass campaigns
-benefits of skilled members (PR skills, practical skills, legal expertise)

9

Why is material resources important for a pressure group in particular ?

-membership groups often rely on membership fees

10

Other than money, what are other examples of material resources? (3)

-equipment
-office space
-virtual assets e.g registered domain names on the internet

11

Why are some insider groups unlikely to publicise the extent of their influence?

for fear of alienating the government and losing their status

12

What is a disadvantage of high profile protests and students which appear impressive?

they only succeed rare in changing policy

13

During the Fuel Protests in 2000, who did the government choose to speak to ?

the Road Hauliers' Association rather than those organisation the protest

14

When do pressure groups turn to the European Union?

-when they are faced with a national government unsympathetic for their cause
-when their section interest or cause is supranational

15

What 2 reasons do environmental pressure groups have for going to the European Union

1)environmental issues by definition do not respect national boundaries
2)the EU is already committed to environmental protection

16

Why is the fact that environmental issues by definition do not respect national boundaries a reason for environmental pressure groups to go to the European Union?

because it therefore makes sense to deal with issues at a European or international level rather than simply at national level

17

Why is the fact that the EU is already committed to environmental protection a reason for environmental pressure groups to go to the European Union?

as the EU are therefore more sympathetic to the aims and objectives of many environmental pressure groups than are national governments

18

Why would it be more advantageous for pressure groups in the broad areas of economic and environmental policy to target their policies at the EU?

as the proliferation of the Europe-wide regulation provides an opportunity for real influence not often afforded to pressure groups at national level

19

On what 2 issues in particular have pressure groups improved though working through the EU

-water quality
-sewage pollution

20

What pressure group have brought about great changes through targeting the EU to put the national government under pressure?

SAS
Surfers Against Sewage

21

What policy regarding England's beaches have had the effect of raising the public profile of the EU?

-The policy of awarding blue flags for clean beaches

22

what type of group have their interest remain better funded and better equipped than most environmentalists?

Business interests

23

Under what Act has European law taken precedent over our national laws where the two are in conflict?

European Communities Act 1972

24

What is an advantage for pressure groups as a direct result of the European Communities 1972?

Pressure groups can force change on their national governments by going over their heads

25

Since what date have decisions made by the Council of Ministers been increasingly taken under by a system of Qualified Majority Voting (QMV) rather than unanimity?

1986

26

What does it mean for pressure groups since by 1986 decisions made by the Council of Ministers have been increasingly taken under by a system of Qualified Majority Voting rather than unanimity?

Groups have to work to build up a broader European support rather than simply lobbying there own government to block measures using national veto

27

How is QMV (from 1986) a benefit for pressure groups?

a UK based group can campaign for a measure effecting the UK knowing that the UK government alone cannot prevent it from happening using the national veto

28

What are 'Eurogroups'?

where like-minded pressure groups aggregate their efforts into forming a Eurogroup

29

What is the most prominent advantage of Eurogroups? (2)

they possess sufficient resources
represent a large enough 'consistency' for their views to be heard

30

What has a massive appetite for information and recognises Eurogroups as a legitimate source of information

the European Commission

31

What fully legitimises a Eurogroup but is however difficult to attain?

a permanent office in Brussels

32

What Eurogroup , as an example, has a permanent office in Brussels?

the National Farmers Union

33

What Eurogroup is the National Famers Union a member of as well as having a permanent office in Brussels?

COPA-COGECA

34

What is the COPA COGECA?

COPA- is the umbrella organisation representing the main agricultural organisations in the EU
COGECA is the equivalent organisation for agricultural cooperatives

35

What is the membership of the COPA COGECA?

100 member organisations representing around 15 million farmers across the EU