Flashcards in Families Deck (51):
What is meant by the term family?
-A group of two or more persons associated by birth, cohabitation, marriage or adoption.
What is a household?
-All people living together in a domestic dwelling, e.g. students or friends.
What is a Nuclear Family?
-An adult male and female and their dependant children. Often referred to as the typical family, or a 'cereal packet' family.
What is a Virtually Extended Family?
-Three generations living together.
What is a Horizontally Extended Family?
Relative in the same generation living together, e.g. two brothers and their wives.
What is a Lone Parent Family?
-One parent with their dependant children.
-90% of these are headed by women.
What is a Beanpole Family?
-Many generations, but few of each.
What is a Reconstructed Family?
-A family that has a step parent and at least one step child in it.
What is a Same Sex Family?
-Two adults of the same sex living together, they may be married or have adopted children.
What is an Empty Nest Family?
-Used to be a nuclear family but the children have left.
What are Dependant Children?
-A person living at home under 16 or between 16-18 but in full time education.
What are Non-Dependant Children?
-A person living at home but making their own income and food.
What is a Breadwinner?
-The main income earner in the household.
What is a Matrifocal Family?
-A family organised by and focused on the mother.
Who is the Traditional Breadwinner?
-The man/husband makes the most money and pays the bills.
Describe some Lone Parent stats.
-10% of British families are lone parents.
-90% were run by women.
-1/3 to 1/2 of children live with lone parents.
-Less than 3% were run by teenagers.
-The average age of lone parent is 35.
What is the Family Life Cycle?
-The families will change during their lives e.g. children will grow up and leave.
What is Cultural Diversity?
-Different cultural, ethnic and religious groups can have a different family structure, e.g. asian family are typically extended.
What is Social Class Diversity?
-Different family structure due to different incomes and class diversity caused by different norms and values.
What is lifecycle diversity?
-Family structure depends on the stage of a family.
-We go through a number of family types in our life.
Describe living alone.
-More people live alone now as there is less social stigma attached to being single.
-They are run by residents, and each household is self contained, personal and private but residents come together to eat and share activities.
Describe Communal Living.
-There is no religion, they are politically active.
-All members receive housing, healthcare, food and personal spending money, everything is shared.
What is the Functionalist view on the family?
-Every Institution creates a stable society.
-The family has a very important role in society - Primary Socialisation.
-The nuclear family is ideal.
What is Murdock (1949)?
The nuclear family fulfils the following essential functions for society (REPS):
-Reproductive: provide new members for society
-Economic: Provide for themselves financially.
-Primary Socialisation: Create culture, norms and values.
-Sexual/Emotional: Controls sexuality, provide stability for adults.
What is New Right?
-More recent version of functionalist.
What is Murray (1989)?
-Families should look after each other and not rely on the state for money.
-Oppose 'alternate' family types, believe they damage society.
What is the Marxist view on families?
-Believe that society favours the rich over the poor.
-The nuclear family creates inequality for working class families.
-Teaches working class kids to accept the position.
What is the Feminist on families?
-Nuclear create inequality for women.
-Society is a patriarchy (male dominance).
-Primary socialisation in a family is a gendered process.
What are Gender Roles?
-The roles each member of a family do, depending on their sex.
What is a House Wife?
-A married woman who looks after the home while her husband is the breadwinner.
What is the Domestic Division of Labour?
-How the household tasks are divided between the family.
What are Joint (Intergrated) Congicual Roles?
-A husband and wife do similar tasks and share activities.
What are Segregated Congicual Roles?
-Husband and wife do different roles and have different activities.
What is Parsons (Functionalist)?
-Instrumental and expressive roles.
-Traditional nuclear families have segregated congicual roles.
-Functionalists and New Right say it benefits children and society.
What are Biological Differences?
-Husband has an instrumental role, he provides for his family.
-Wife has an expressive role, socialise children and do housework, she meets the families emotional needs.
How have things changed?
-Rise in feminism 1960., fight for equality in the workplace.
-1970 equal pay act, equality for women.
-1975 sex discrimination act, equal job opportunities for women.
-1975 Employment protection act, maternity leave and job protection.
What was the Impact?
-1950's 35% of women work.
-2012 71% of women work which equals 46% of the workplace.
What was Young and Willmott?
-The symmetrical family.
-Roles between husband and wife are 'symmetrical'.
-72% of men did housework during the week.
-Husbands and wives share decision making tasks.
-Husbands and wives share leasiure activities.
What do Feminists believe?
-Believe that women are still expected to do housework.
-Men 'Cherry Pick', meaning they do the tasks when they want.
-Men still make more decisions.
What is a Double Shift?
-Women do payed work ad housework.
What is a Triple Shift?
-Women do payed work, housework and emotional work.
What is Childhood?
-Known as the social construct.
-The period of time between being born and becoming an independent person.
What was past childhood like?
-Parents were 'authoritarian', strict and discipline their children harshly.
-They smacked their children.
-They spent less time/money on their children.
What is Childhood like now?
-Relationships are more childcentred.
-Children have more rights.
-Children are involved in decisions.
-Teenagers are more 'financially dependant' on their parents.
What is Life Expectancy?
-The probable number of years a person will live.
What is the Average Life Expectancy for men and women?
What is Mortality Rate?
-How many people die per year, per thousand.
-17 in 1900.
-7.9 in 2012.
-Lowered because of improved medical care, machines, technology and knowledge.
What is Fertility Rate?
-How many children a women has on average.
-3 in 1900.
-1.9 in 2012.
-Lowered because women work and have less time for children.
Why is there an increase in Co-habitation?
-Marriage decline from 7.1 marriages per thousand in 1981, to 5.2 per thousand in 2005.
The number of people living in co-habitation has doubled in the last 20 years.