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Flashcards in Families Deck (51):

What is meant by the term family?

-A group of two or more persons associated by birth, cohabitation, marriage or adoption.


What is a household?

-All people living together in a domestic dwelling, e.g. students or friends.


What is a Nuclear Family?

-An adult male and female and their dependant children. Often referred to as the typical family, or a 'cereal packet' family.


What is a Virtually Extended Family?

-Three generations living together.


What is a Horizontally Extended Family?

Relative in the same generation living together, e.g. two brothers and their wives.


What is a Lone Parent Family?

-One parent with their dependant children.
-90% of these are headed by women.


What is a Beanpole Family?

-Many generations, but few of each.


What is a Reconstructed Family?

-A family that has a step parent and at least one step child in it.


What is a Same Sex Family?

-Two adults of the same sex living together, they may be married or have adopted children.


What is an Empty Nest Family?

-Used to be a nuclear family but the children have left.


What are Dependant Children?

-A person living at home under 16 or between 16-18 but in full time education.


What are Non-Dependant Children?

-A person living at home but making their own income and food.


What is a Breadwinner?

-The main income earner in the household.


What is a Matrifocal Family?

-A family organised by and focused on the mother.


Who is the Traditional Breadwinner?

-The man/husband makes the most money and pays the bills.


Describe some Lone Parent stats.

-10% of British families are lone parents.
-90% were run by women.
-1/3 to 1/2 of children live with lone parents.
-Less than 3% were run by teenagers.
-The average age of lone parent is 35.


What is the Family Life Cycle?

-The families will change during their lives e.g. children will grow up and leave.


What is Cultural Diversity?

-Different cultural, ethnic and religious groups can have a different family structure, e.g. asian family are typically extended.


What is Social Class Diversity?

-Different family structure due to different incomes and class diversity caused by different norms and values.


What is lifecycle diversity?

-Family structure depends on the stage of a family.
-We go through a number of family types in our life.


Describe living alone.

-More people live alone now as there is less social stigma attached to being single.


Describe Co-housing.

-They are run by residents, and each household is self contained, personal and private but residents come together to eat and share activities.


Describe Communal Living.

-There is no religion, they are politically active.
-All members receive housing, healthcare, food and personal spending money, everything is shared.


What is the Functionalist view on the family?

-Every Institution creates a stable society.
-The family has a very important role in society - Primary Socialisation.
-The nuclear family is ideal.


What is Murdock (1949)?

The nuclear family fulfils the following essential functions for society (REPS):
-Reproductive: provide new members for society
-Economic: Provide for themselves financially.
-Primary Socialisation: Create culture, norms and values.
-Sexual/Emotional: Controls sexuality, provide stability for adults.


What is New Right?

-More recent version of functionalist.


What is Murray (1989)?

-Families should look after each other and not rely on the state for money.
-Oppose 'alternate' family types, believe they damage society.


What is the Marxist view on families?

-Believe that society favours the rich over the poor.
-The nuclear family creates inequality for working class families.
-Teaches working class kids to accept the position.


What is the Feminist on families?

-Nuclear create inequality for women.
-Society is a patriarchy (male dominance).
-Primary socialisation in a family is a gendered process.


What are Gender Roles?

-The roles each member of a family do, depending on their sex.


What is a House Wife?

-A married woman who looks after the home while her husband is the breadwinner.


What is the Domestic Division of Labour?

-How the household tasks are divided between the family.


What are Joint (Intergrated) Congicual Roles?

-A husband and wife do similar tasks and share activities.


What are Segregated Congicual Roles?

-Husband and wife do different roles and have different activities.


What is Parsons (Functionalist)?

-Instrumental and expressive roles.
-Traditional nuclear families have segregated congicual roles.
-Functionalists and New Right say it benefits children and society.


What are Biological Differences?

-Husband has an instrumental role, he provides for his family.
-Wife has an expressive role, socialise children and do housework, she meets the families emotional needs.


How have things changed?

-Rise in feminism 1960., fight for equality in the workplace.
-1970 equal pay act, equality for women.
-1975 sex discrimination act, equal job opportunities for women.
-1975 Employment protection act, maternity leave and job protection.


What was the Impact?

-1950's 35% of women work.
-2012 71% of women work which equals 46% of the workplace.


What was Young and Willmott?

-The symmetrical family.
-Roles between husband and wife are 'symmetrical'.
-72% of men did housework during the week.
-Husbands and wives share decision making tasks.
-Husbands and wives share leasiure activities.


What do Feminists believe?

-Believe that women are still expected to do housework.
-Men 'Cherry Pick', meaning they do the tasks when they want.
-Men still make more decisions.


What is a Double Shift?

-Women do payed work ad housework.


What is a Triple Shift?

-Women do payed work, housework and emotional work.


What is Childhood?

-Known as the social construct.
-The period of time between being born and becoming an independent person.


What was past childhood like?

-Parents were 'authoritarian', strict and discipline their children harshly.
-They smacked their children.
-They spent less time/money on their children.


What is Childhood like now?

-Relationships are more childcentred.
-Children have more rights.
-Children are involved in decisions.
-Teenagers are more 'financially dependant' on their parents.


What is Life Expectancy?

-The probable number of years a person will live.


What is the Average Life Expectancy for men and women?

-Men: 79
-Women: 82


What is Mortality Rate?

-How many people die per year, per thousand.
-17 in 1900.
-7.9 in 2012.
-Lowered because of improved medical care, machines, technology and knowledge.


What is Fertility Rate?

-How many children a women has on average.
-3 in 1900.
-1.9 in 2012.
-Lowered because women work and have less time for children.


Why is there an increase in Co-habitation?

-Marriage decline from 7.1 marriages per thousand in 1981, to 5.2 per thousand in 2005.
The number of people living in co-habitation has doubled in the last 20 years.


Why is there an increase in divorce?

-In the 1970s, 63,000 divorces were granted, it peaked around 180,000 in 1993 but fell to 144,000 in 2007.
-This is because:
-There is less social stigma, and people don't feel judged.
-Decline in religion.
-People get married too soon.