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Flashcards in Family Deck (47):
1

family definition

2 or more individuals that live together and act as a unit

related genetically or legally

2

nuclear family

1950s ideal
2 parents, 2.5 kids, 1 dog

studied till 90s

3

changes in family structure

more children live w/ unmarried/single parents -- heightened risk for racial and low SES groups

college degree = less likely to be single parent

single parent = poverty

average age of 1st child went from 21 to 26 -- teen birth rate dec and moms waiting to have kids

4

blended family

divorce/death and remarriage

dec contact with other parent not in new relationship

inc family income

can gain another trusted adult

dec chance of delinquency in children

step father - step son conflict is inc compared to biological

5

intergenerational family

grandparents, uncles, etc.

anyone outside nuclear family

6

empty nesters

kids are grown up

"childless family"

7

polygyny

polyandry

many wives

many husbands

not legal in Canada

8

communal family

groups of nuclear families living together

SHARING resources

non-Western cultures
(also Oregon and Seattle)

9

commuter families

live separately sometimes

work commuting

children of divorce

10

gay/lesbian families

not true type of family -- can be any type of family

majority of children are born when one parent was in a hetero realtionship

11

what matters

HOW MANY caregivers there are

financial strain

amount of attention/child

quality of relationships

parenting style

cultural values

12

what doesn't matter

gender

sexual orientation

13

impacts of divorce

dec school achievement (less likely to complete hs)

depression

relationship w/ parents can decline

externalizing problems (especially boys)

delinquency, teen parenthood, substance abuse (adolescents)

inc risk of divorce themselves as adults

women: poorer quality intimate relationships

14

marital conflict factors

frequency

nature of conflict (abusive, name calling)

how it's resolved (avoidance vs. talking through problems)

15

risk factors of marital conflict

competition for child's affection

perception of an unsafe environment

using the child as a mediator

16

problems with adopted children

more likely if child is older

more likely if they spent lot of time in foster care

pre adoption care was poor (foster care)

17

authoritarian parenting

controlling and restrictive

rules without rationales

not responsive to child's opinion

demanding, forceful

threaten to withdraw love/attention

18

children of authoritarian parents:

fearful of punishment

anxious towards authority

dec self esteem
dec social and academic achievement
dec comm skills

dependant on parents

rebellious

19

authoritative parenting

controlling yet flexible

include child in decision making

rationale for rules

20

children of authoritative parents:

inc comm skills

good coping skills

inc self esteem

independant

achievement oriented

dec antisocial behaviour

21

permissive parenting

accepting and relaxed

indulgent - "child centred" - want to be friends with child

few demands on child

child free to express opinions

22

children of permissive parents:

don't understand control

don't learn to respect authority - non-compliant

egocentric

poor coping skills

"spoiled"

23

uninvolved parenting

extremely relaxed

may reject/didn't want to have child

too busy to pay attention

"parent-centred"

24

children of uninvolved parents:

dec social skills
dec self esteem
dec self control

poor coping skills

delinquency, drug use, criminal behaviour

25

parenting: culture

chinese = control

canada = affection

authoritarian beneficial in high crime environments

26

divorce is most harmful when kids:

child is old enough to understand, but young enough to still be dependant (5-12)

sensitive children

negative attribution bias -- may blame themselves

27

divorce is most harmful when parents:

fight in front of kids

complain to kids about the other

ask child to mediate/communicate through child

rely on child for emotion or $ support

28

divorce is least harmful when parents:

stay POSITIVELY INVOLVED with kids

explain WHY (age appropriately)

let them experience emotions about the divorce

don't let them take on too mature of roles (boys want to be the man of the house and $ support mom)

29

remarriage

affects young adolescents more than young children

issues w/ autonomy and sexuality may be heightened

30

overprotective parents

authoritative or authoritarian

"helicopter parents"

children become very dependant -- anxious/shy w/ delayed maturation

reciprocal -- children can be clingy/overdependant

31

direct instruction

telling children what to do and WHY

promotes cognitive growth

what you SHOULD be doing rather than what not to do

32

observing

Bandura (observational learning)

social interactions/roles

bad habits

33

feedback

reinforcement - encourages behaviour -- more receptive to learning

punishment -- discourages behaviour -- makes us sad

34

positive reinforcement

adding something positive to encourage behavior

external: allowance
internal: praise

most effective

35

negative reinforcement

removing something negative to encourage behavior

external: don't have to do chores
internal: removing judgement from parents

36

positive punishment

adding something unpleasant to discourage behaviour

external: chores, fines
internal: scolding

37

negative punishment

removing something positive to discourage behaviour

external: taking away phone
internal: withholding love

more distressing than positive punishment

38

punishment works when:

immediately after behaviour

accompanied by an explanation

given by person who they have a good relationship with normally

calm yet FIRM -- not agitated

behaviour is wrong, NOT CHILD

39

logical consequencies

punishment matches action

40

illogical conseqencues

punishment doesn't match consequencies

least effective
most common

justice system

41

natural consequences

parents wait till naturally occuring consequence occurs rather than punishing

most effective
unethical?

42

spanking

does not work

inc risk for negative outcomes

models out of control method for handling things
promotes aggression

outlawed in many countries
through HofC in Canada - still law

43

time out

not explaining why the behaviour was problematic

isolating them from social situations (school, daycare)

44

classroom

ideal: one-on-one time with problematic student to teach coping skills

reality: repeat instructions and be consistent

45

negative reinforcement trap

child argues/whines

parent TAKES AWAY obligation (chores)

teaches child to whine to AVOID obligations

46

positive reinforcement trap

child wants treat and whines

parent gives in and GIVES THEM TREAT

teaches child to whine to GET TREAT

47

daycare

high # of hours in daycare and the# of times you change daycare = most predictive of negative outcomes